CENTRAL AFRICAN
REPUBLIC
Central African Republic
Republique Centrafricaine
Joined United Nations:  20 September 1960
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 25 March 2013
CAPITAL
POPULATION
CHIEF OF STATE
SELECTION PROCESS
Bangui
5,166,510
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death
rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by
age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 201
3 est.)
Nicolas Tiangaye
Prime Minister since 17 January 2013
Under the new constitution, the president elected to a five-year term
(was eligible for a second term); elections last held 23 January
2011
; overturned by coup on 24 March 2013

Next scheduled election: per Djotodia sometime in 2016
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
SELECTION PROCESS
Prime Minister appointed by the political party with a
parliamentary majority; elections however Tiangaye was
 
appointment by President Bozize as part of a peace agreement
with Séléka rebels: last held 23 January 2011 and 27 March
2011

Next scheduled election:  2016
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
ETHNIC GROUPS
Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2%
RELIGIONS
Indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%
note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian majority
GOVERNMENT
STRUCTURE
Republic with 4 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures (prefectures economiques, singular -
prefecture economique), and 1 commune; Legal system is based on French law
Executive: Under the new constitution, the president elected to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 13
March and 23 January 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative: Unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (105 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 23 January 2011 and 27 March 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Judicial: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the
National Assembly, and 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Inferior Courts
LANGUAGES
French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
BRIEF HISTORY
The Central African Republic is believed to have been settled from at least the 7th century on by overlapping empires, including the
Kanem-Bornu, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, and Dafour groups based around Lake Chad region and along Upper Nile. Later, various
sultanates claimed present-day C.A.R, using the entire Oubangui region as a slave reservoir, from which slaves were traded north
across the Sahara. Population migration in the 18th and 19th centuries brought new migrants into the area, including the Zande,
Banda, and Baya-Mandjia. In 1875 the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day
C.A.R. Europeans, primarily the French, German, and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885. The French consolidated their legal
claim to the area through an 1887 convention with Congo Free State, which granted France possession of the right bank of the
Oubangui River. Two years later, the French established an outpost at Bangui, and in 1894, Oubangui-Chari became a French
territory. However, the French did not consolidate their control over the area until 1903, after having defeated the forces of Rabih in
the battle of Kousséri, and established colonial administration throughout the territory. In 1906, the Oubangui-Chari territory was
united with the Chad colony; in 1910, it became one of the four territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa (A.E.F.),
along with Chad, Republic of the Congo, and Gabon. The next thirty years were marked by small scale revolts against French rule
and the development of a plantation-style economy. In August 1940, the territory responded, with the rest of the A.E.F., to the call
from General Charles de Gaulle to fight for Free France. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first
of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. In
1946, all A.E.F. inhabitants were granted French citizenship and allowed to establish local assemblies. The assembly in C.A.R. was
led by Barthélemy Boganda, a Catholic priest who also was known for his forthright statements in the French Assembly on the need
for African emancipation. In 1956 French legislation eliminated certain voting inequalities and provided for the creation of some
organs of self-government in each territory. The French constitutional referendum of September 1958 dissolved the A.E.F., and on
December 1 of the same year the Assembly declared the birth of the Central African Republic with Boganda as head of
government. Boganda ruled until his death in a March 1959 plane crash. His cousin, David Dacko, replaced him, governing the
country until 1965 and overseeing the country's declaration of independence on August 13, 1960. On January 1, 1966, following a
swift and almost bloodless coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa assumed power as president of the Republic. Bokassa abolished the
constitution of 1959, dissolved the National Assembly, and issued a decree that placed all legislative and executive powers in the
hands of the president. On December 4, 1976, the republic became a monarchy -- the Central African Empire -- with the
promulgation of the imperial constitution and the proclamation of the president as Emperor Bokassa I. His regime was characterized
by numerous human rights atrocities. Following riots in Bangui and the murder of between 50 and 200 schoolchildren, former
President Dacko led a successful French-backed coup against Bokassa on September 20, 1979 and restored the Republic.
Dacko's efforts to promote economic and political reforms proved ineffectual, and on September 20, 1981, he in turn was
overthrown in a bloodless coup by General André Kolingba. For four years, Kolingba led the country as head of the Military
Committee for National Recovery (CRMN). In 1985 the CRMN was dissolved, and Kolingba named a new cabinet with
increased civilian participation, signaling the start of a return to civilian rule. The process of democratization quickened in 1986 with
the creation of a new political party, the Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC), and the drafting of a new constitution
that subsequently was ratified in a national referendum. General Kolingba was sworn in as constitutional President on November 29,
1986. The constitution established a National Assembly made up of 52 elected deputies, elected in July 1987. Due to mounting
political pressure, in 1991 President Kolingba announced the creation of National Commission to rewrite the constitution to provide
for a multi-party system. Internal and international pressure led to multi-party presidential elections being held in 1992. Much of the
resources for these first democratic elections since independence came via locally represented donors and agencies called the
"Groupe informel des bailleurs de fonds et representants residents" (GIBAFOR)and help from the UN Office of Electoral
Assistance was also obtained. Most of the pressure came from the US and then somewhat less enthusiastically France. The
elections were held, but the government provoked logistical problems and other irregularities so they could nullify the results as a
means to prolong their stay in office. Internal and international pressure in particular from France continued and in rescheduled
elections held in October 1993, again with the help of the international community Ange-Félix Patassé won a second-round victory,
Notwithstanding several army mutinies and increasing civic concern both at his erratic style and arbitrary, corrupt method of
governing he was re-elected for another 6-year term in September 1999. Salary arrears, labor unrest, and unequal treatment of
military officers from different ethnic groups had also been among the causes of the three mutinies against the Patassé government in
1996 and 1997. The French succeeded in helping it to quell the disturbances, and an African peacekeeping force (MISAB)
occupied Bangui until 1998 when they were relieved by a United Nations peacekeeping mission (MINURCA). Economic
difficulties caused by the looting and destruction during the 1996 and 1997 mutinies, energy crises, and government mismanagement
continued to trouble Patassé's government through 2000. In March 2000 the last of the MINURCA forces departed Bangui. On 15
March 2003 rebels who controlled part of the country moved into Bangui and installed their commander, General François Bozizé,
as president, while President Patassé was out of the country. Bozize has since been elected President in an election considered by
observers to be fair and free. Patasse has been found guilty of major crimes in Bangui and CAR has brought a case to the
International Criminal Court against him and Jean Pierre Bemba from the neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo accusing
them both of multiple crimes in suppressing one of the mutinies against Patasse. Civil tranquillity has yet to be established and parts
of the country remain out of government control. The UN continues to maintain a peace building mission in Bangui. On 8 May
2005, Bozizé gained yet a further victory when his coalition, Convergence Kwa Na Kwa, won 42 parliamentary seats in the
legislative run-off vote. In early 2006, Bozizé's government appeared stable. However, Patassé, who was living in exile in Togo,
could not be ruled out as a leader of a future uprising. A presidential and parliamentary election was held in the Central African
Republic on 23 January 2011 after having been postponed numerous times. President François Bozizé was re-elected to a second
term. The organization of the election was plagued by difficulties, and the opposition, feeling that the proper conditions for an
election did not exist in 2010, repeatedly demanded its postponement. Ultimately it was delayed until January 2011, requiring an
extension of the terms of both the President and the National Assembly. The legislative run-off was held on 27 March 2011,
postponed from 20 March 2011.
In December 2012, a coalition of rebel groups called Séléka mounted an offensive against the
army and quickly seized control of a large portion of the Central African Republic, threatening Bangui, the capital, and putting the
government of President Bozizé in a desperate situation. At peace talks held in Libreville in January 2013, Nicolas Tiangaye headed
the political opposition's delegation; the government and the rebels also sent delegations. An agreement was reached on 11 January
2013, allowing Bozizé to finish his term as President but also requiring him to accept a prime minister chosen by his opponents,
along with a government that would include the political opposition and rebels; Bozizé would not be allowed to dismiss the new
prime minister from his post. On 13 January 2013, Tiangaye announced that he had been unanimously selected by opposition
leaders as their choice for the post of prime minister. However, Bozizé hesitated to appoint Tiangaye without the approval of the
Séléka rebels, causing a short delay. The Séléka rebels announced on 15 January 2013 that they endorsed the opposition's choice.
President Bozizé appointed Tiangaye as Prime Minister in a ceremony held in Bangui on 17 January 2013.  According to the terms
of the peace agreement, a new parliamentary election is intended to be held after one year, while the next presidential election will
be held as originally scheduled in 2016; both Bozizé and Tiangaye will be barred from standing as presidential candidates at that
time. Negotiations regarding the composition of the national unity government followed Tiangaye's appointment. Eventually, the
government's composition was announced on 3 February 2013. Ministerial portfolios were divided between Bozizé supporters, the
rebels, and the political opposition; notably, rebel leader Michel Djotodia was appointed as First Deputy Prime Minister for
National Defense. Tiangaye himself was assigned the finance portfolio. The peace agreement unraveled in March 2013, as Séléka
resumed seizing towns, accusing Bozizé of failing to keep his promises. After days of fighting, the rebels captured Bangui on 24
March 2013, forcing Bozizé to flee the country, and Djotodia was declared President. Djotodia said that there would be a
three-year transitional period and that Tiangaye would continue to serve as Prime Minister.

Source: Wikipedia: History of Central African Republic
ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic (CAR), with
about 60% of the population living in outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates more than half of GDP. Timber has accounted
for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry, for 40%. Important constraints to economic development include the
CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy of misdirected
macroeconomic policies. Factional fighting between the government and its opponents remains a drag on economic revitalization.
Since 2009 the IMF has worked closely with the government to institute reforms that have resulted in some improvement in budget
transparency, but other problems remain. The government's additional spending in the run-up to the election in 2011 worsened
CAR's fiscal situation. Distribution of income is extraordinarily unequal. Grants from France and the international community can
only partially meet humanitarian needs. CAR currently lacks an IMF program.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Central African Republic)
POLITICAL CLIMATE
Former coup leader Francois Bozize took more than 64% of the vote in the second round of presidential elections in May 2005,
ending two years of military rule. His rival was Martin Ziguele, a former prime minister. The newly-elected president called for
national unity. He had pledged in his campaign to bring security to the coup-prone country. In 2003 Mr Bozize ousted the
unpopular Ange-Felix Patasse - who was out of the country at the time - and declared himself president. He promised to return the
CAR to democratic rule and ran as an independent in the 2005 poll. Mr Bozize is no stranger to politics, or to coups. He stood for
president in the republic's first democratic elections in 1993, but lost to Mr Patasse. He led an unsuccessful coup in 1983 against
military ruler Andre Kolingba and was suspected of being involved in a coup attempt against President Patasse in 2001, which was
thwarted with the help of Libyan troops.

Politics of the Central African Republic takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President is both head of
state and head of government, with a separate executive Prime Minister. Executive power is exercised by the government.
Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The government was deposed in 15 March 2003 by forces
under the rebel leader François Bozizé, who promised elections in 18 to 30 months. A new cabinet was set up in 1 April 2003.
Elections were held on 13 March 2005.

A presidential and parliamentary election was held in the Central African Republic on 23 January 2011 after having been postponed
numerous times. President François Bozizé was re-elected to a second term. The organization of the election was plagued by
difficulties, and the opposition, feeling that the proper conditions for an election did not exist in 2010, repeatedly demanded its
postponement. Ultimately it was delayed until January 2011, requiring an extension of the terms of both the President and the
National Assembly. The legislative run-off was held on 27 March 2011, postponed from 20 March 2011. An agreement was
reached on 11 January 2013, allowing Bozizé to finish his term as President but also requiring him to accept a prime minister chosen
by his opponents, along with a government that would include the political opposition and rebels; Bozizé would not be allowed to
dismiss the new prime minister from his post. On 13 January 2013, Tiangaye announced that he had been unanimously selected by
opposition leaders as their choice for the post of prime minister.The peace agreement unraveled in March 2013, as Séléka resumed
seizing towns, accusing Bozizé of failing to keep his promises. After days of fighting, the rebels captured Bangui on 24 March 2013,
forcing Bozizé to flee the country, and Djotodia was declared President. Djotodia said that there would be a three-year transitional
period and that Tiangaye would continue to serve as Prime Minister.
Djotodia has suspended the constitution indefinitely.
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of Central African Republic
INTERNATIONAL
DISPUTES
Periodic skirmishes over water and grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border with southern Sudan persist
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
REFUGEES AND
INTERNALLY
DISPLACED PERSONS
(IDPS)
Refugees (country of origin): 15,300 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2010)
IDPs: 192,000 (clashes between army and rebel groups since 2005) (2011)
ILLICIT DRUGS
None reported.
Observatoire Centrafricain
des Droits de l'Homme
U. S. STATE
DEPARTMENT
HUMAN RIGHTS STATEMENTS, ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUES
2011 Human Rights Report: Central African Republic
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May 25, 2012

Central African Republic (CAR) is a constitutional republic governed by a strong executive branch and weak legislative and judicial
branches. Armed forces Chief of Staff General Francois Bozize seized power in a military coup in 2003. In January citizens reelected
Bozize president in what was considered by national and international observers to be a flawed election. There were instances in which
elements of the security forces acted independently of civilian control.

Incidents of serious human rights abuse occurred during the year; the most significant reportedly were torture, beatings, and rape of
suspects and prisoners; harsh and rudimentary conditions in prisons and detention centers; and arbitrary arrest and detention.

Other human rights problems included prolonged pretrial detention, denial of fair trial, occasional intimidation of the press, restrictions on
freedom of movement and assembly, and limited ability of citizens to change their government. Sporadic fighting between armed groups
continued to displace people internally and externally, although the net number decreased from the prior year. Regional conflict modestly
increased the number of refugees in CAR. Corruption was widespread. Mob violence resulted in deaths and injuries. Societal
discrimination and violence against women, including female genital mutilation, occurred. Violence and discrimination against Pygmies
and persons alleged to be witches or sorcerers; trafficking in persons; and forced labor and child labor, including forced child labor, also
were problems.

Civilians were often killed, abducted, raped, or displaced from their homes as a result of internal conflicts. Some armed groups included
children among their ranks.

The government took some steps to punish officials who committed abuses; however, most official abuses were committed with
impunity.
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UNITED NATIONS
HUMAN RIGHTS
COUNCIL
Central African Republic: UN envoy signs agreements on conflict-related sexual violence
12 December 2012

A senior United Nations official today concluded a visit to the Central African Republic (CAR) – her first mission abroad since her
appointment – with the announcement of two agreements on conflict-related sexual violence with stakeholders in the country’s peace
process.

“I have made the Central African Republic my first visit, because I want to draw attention to the situation and make sure that the world
and the international community does not forget about CAR,” said the Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Sexual Violence in
Conflict, Zainab Hawa Bangura.

“We want to take forward our cooperation with CAR,” she added. “I sincerely hope and believe that both the Joint Communiqué with
the Government and specific commitments by armed groups will serve as a good tool in this respect.”

In addition to focussing greater international attention on the situation in the CAR, the aim of the envoy’s visit was to gain first-hand
knowledge of the challenges involved in addressing conflict-related sexual violence there.

The first of the agreements signed by Ms. Bangura and her hosts – called the Joint Communiqué of the Government of the Central
African Republic and the United Nations – includes commitments to fight impunity for crimes of sexual violence; ensure the protection
of women, boys and girls from sexual violence in the context of an effective monitoring of the peace agreement; and, provide greater
support to survivors.

One of the key points of the second agreement – the so-called Joint Communiqué of the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration
Steering Committee, which is made up of representatives of the Government, armed groups, the United Nations, and other members of
the international community – is the requirement that political-military groups immediately release vulnerable individuals such as women
and children.

The CAR has a history of political instability and recurring armed conflict. State authority is weak in many parts of the country, which
are largely controlled by rebel groups and criminal armed groups, according to the UN Department of Political Affairs (DPA).

Coupled with ethnic tensions in the north, frequent armed incursions by rebel elements from neighbouring countries and the presence of
members of the armed Ugandan group known as the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), have added to insecurity and instability in CAR,
which also has 170,000 people displaced internally.

According to a news release from the UN envoy’s office, conflict-related sexual violence in CAR is also a significant problem. Sexual
violence has been reported more often in areas controlled by political-military groups and where other armed forces and bandits are
active. There are also serious concerns about foreign armed groups, in particular the LRA and Chadian armed groups.

During her visit, the Special Representative met with President François Bozizé, with the Prime Minister and other members of
Government, as well as with survivors of sexual violence, women’s groups and with female members of parliament. She also visited
two regions outside of the capital – Bria and Paoua.
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FREEDOM HOUSE
Freedom In The World 2012 Report
Political Rights Score: 5
Civil Liberties Score: 5
Status: Partly Free

Overview
President François Bozizé was reelected for a second term in January 2011 with 64 percent of the vote. The National Convergence Kwa
Na Kwa, which backs Bozizé, won the majority of the seats in concurrent elections to the National Assembly. Although members of
opposition parties challenged the results, citing irregularities at the polls, the country’s Constitutional Council ruled in favor of Bozizé.
Insecurity continued to plague much of the country during the year, as the Lord’s Resistance Army continued its attacks against
civilians, though the Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace rebel group signed a ceasefire with the government in July.

In January 2010, half of the members of the Independent Electoral Commission quit in protest over the appointment of its president,
Joseph Binguimalet, whom they claimed favored Bozizé. Presidential and legislative elections were postponed twice in early 2010 as a
result of inadequate funding, insecurity in the north, and incomplete voter lists. By August, all political parties and civil society groups
signed onto a new election calendar scheduled for January 23, 2011. A law passed by the National Assembly in May 2010 allowed
Bozizé and members of the Assembly to remain in power until elections were held.

In January 2011, President Bozizé, with the backing of KNK, ran against four candidates and won 66 percent of the vote. His closest
challenger, ex-president and independent Ange-Félix Patassé, captured 20 percent of the vote. Opposition leaders and candidates
challenged the results, which were upheld by the Constitutional Court, but revised by lowering the percentage of Bozizé’s votes to 64
percent. MKNK won 63 out of the 105 seats in concurrent elections to the National Assembly. These elections were considered free,
and security officers did not intimidate voters to the degree they had in previous elections. However, the opposition criticized both the
presidential and parliamentary elections as unfair, citing fictitious and displaced polling stations, problematic electoral rolls, and numbers
on voting cards not matching those in the voting stations rolls.

In June, the CPJP signed a ceasefire with the government, but no timetable was established for the implementation of its demobilization.
Meanwhile, former UFDR rebels occupied the city of Sam Ouandje in July, and in September, they started fighting with CPJP rebels
over control of the diamond trade. The two rebel groups signed a ceasefire on October 9.  

Decades of conflict and poor governance have led to economic and social collapse. The CAR was ranked 179 out of 187 countries in the
UN Development Programme’s 2011 Human Development Index. However, according to the International Monetary Fund, the economy
has recovered slightly, mainly as the result of investments in the diamond and forest industries.
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AMNESTY
INTERNATIONAL
Annual Report 2012
May 25, 2012

The human rights situation remained dire as the Central African Republic (CAR) continued to be ravaged by conflict involving numerous
armed groups. The civilian population was subjected to widespread human rights abuses, including unlawful killings, abductions, torture
and sexual violence, including rape.  maybe not. In Venezuela, I did not open an investigation, in Central African Republic, I opened an
investigation – it depends."

Background
President Bozizé was re-elected in January, beating his nearest rival, former President Ange-Félix Patassé, with more than 60 per cent of
the vote. The provisional results issued by the Independent Electoral Commission were confirmed by the Constitutional Court in
February.

A significant proportion of the CAR was beyond the control of the government. At least 200,000 people were internally displaced, having
been forced to flee their homes because of attacks, while about 200,000 refugees lived in neighbouring countries.

The north-west of the CAR was under the effective control of the Popular Army for the Restoration of Democracy (APRD), an armed
group which had signed a peace agreement with the government. In the south-east and east, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)
increased the number and severity of its attacks.

In mid-July, members of the Union of Democratic Forces for the Rally (UFDR) attacked and occupied the north-eastern town of Sam
Ouandja. The UFDR, an armed group based in Haute-Kotto province, claimed that it was in retaliation for attacks on its positions by the
Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (CPJP). Hundreds of people were displaced by fighting between CPJP and UFDR armed
groups in September.

Between June and August, three CPJP factions signed peace agreements with the government, although their fighters continued to be
armed.

Peacekeeping
US President Barack Obama announced in October that he had sent about 100 US troops to central Africa, including the CAR, to help
and advise government forces battling the LRA.

As many as 200 French government soldiers continued to be deployed in the CAR, helping to restructure and train the government’s
armed forces.
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HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
Central African Republic: Letter to Minister of Justice on the Massacre in the CAWA Concession, Mbomou Prefecture
July 9, 2012

Your Excellency,

I write to you on behalf of Human Rights Watch regarding your office’s investigation into the massacre of 13 Central African citizens
near the Ngunguinza gold mine in the Central African Wildlife Adventures (CAWA) hunting concession on or around March 20, 2012.
Human Rights Watch is an independent nongovernmental human rights organization that monitors and reports on human rights abuses by
states and non-state actors in more than 90 countries around the world.

Human Rights Watch conducted a preliminary investigation into this massacre in late March and early April 2012 and we believe the
evidence indicates that these killings could have been perpetrated by the Ugandan rebel group, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). I wish
to share our findings and analysis with you in the hope that it can assist in your investigations and help to bring to justice those
responsible for this terrible crime.

As you know, around March 20, 2012, a group of 13 men were killed in a remote area 164 kilometers northeast of the village of
Bakouma in the Mbomou prefecture. The men had been looking for gold in the western part of the CAWA hunting concession, a 20,000
square-kilometer concession located north of the village of Rafai, east of the village of Yalinga, and west of the Vovodo River. While the
attack was initially thought to be carried out by the LRA, suspicion quickly fell on the foreign managers of the CAWA hunting
concession who were suspected to have ordered their guards, known as the “archers,” to kill the men, allegedly because the camp’s
managers were opposed to the illegal artisanal gold mining activities on the concession.

Human Rights Watch undertook a mission to Central African Republic (CAR) in late March and early April to conduct research on
human rights violations by the LRA and other armed groups operating in southeastern CAR. Our researchers have visited CAR a number
of times over the years and documented abuses such as killings, torture and child soldier recruitment by the Central African armed
forces and non-state armed groups, including in recent years the LRA.

During the course of our recent research we heard about the CAWA massacre. Since it was one of the most violent single incidents
committed in CAR in recent years, our researcher went to the area and interviewed those who discovered the bodies, family members of
the deceased, CAWA employees, Central African army soldiers, local authorities, judicial officials and gendarmes who had investigated
the massacre.
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OFFICIAL
GOVERNMENT HUMAN
RIGHTS STATEMENT
DEATH PENALTY: THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC READY TO VOTE IN FAVOR OF THE UN MORATORIUM AND
ABOLISH THE DEATH PENALTY
October 26, 2012

The delegation of the Radical Party and Hands Off Cain today ended its mission in the Central African Republic meeting with the Prime
Minister Faustin-Archange Touadera.

The head of government has assured Sergio D'Elia, Elisabetta Zampartutti and Marco Perduca that the Central African Republic will vote
in favor of the resolution on the universal Moratorium that will be presented next month at the UN in New York.

The Prime Minister also expressed the political will to implement all legal means available to remove the death penalty, confirming the
commitments undertaken by his government before the UN Human Rights Council for the ratification of the Optional Protocol to the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, prodromal to definitive abolition of the death penalty, no longer applied in the country
for over 30 years.

The Radical delegation then visited two prisons in the capital Bangui, the female prison of Bangui-Bimbo and the male prison of Ngaragba.
In the first case it was a small institution that housed 31 women and three girls in three separate dormitories.

The cells are open from 6 am to 17.30, but the conditions also for areas outside the institute are very dilapidated. Two-thirds of these
women are awaiting trial and many of these are accused of witchcraft.

The male prison is a structure built by French colonists in 1947. It houses 328 men, two thirds of which are awaiting trial. The structure
is divided into blocks for hazard and type of crime, and it is guarded by about twenty soldiers.

Each block has a different name: chambre blanche for political prisoners today reserved for maximum security, couloir for sorceries,
Iraq for blood crimes, Golo-Waka for theft and consumption of cannabis, and DDP for crimes against the public administration.
The institute is in very poor condition, with the vast majority of detainees sleeping directly on the floor, with minimum hygienic
conditions and where the food is prepared and distributed in the premises of all unsuitable.

Thanks to the Minister of Justice the delegation was allowed to photograph the two visits. In the coming hours, a selection of the images
will be published on www.radicalparty.org and www.nessunotocchicaino.it (Sources: HOC, 26/10/2012)
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BUREAU INTEGRE DE
L'
ORGANISATION DES
N
ATIONS UNIES EN
C
ENTAFRIQUE (BINUCA)
TRANSLATED FROM FRENCH BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
November 28, 2011
Report of the Secretary General on the situation Central African Republic and on the activities of the Office integrated
United Nations Peacebuilding in this country

I. Introduction
1.This report responds to the request by the Security Council in the statement of its President dated September 26, 2001
(S/PRST/2001/25) by which the Council requested me to keep it regularly informed of the activities of the Office of United Nations
support for the consolidation of peace in the Central African Republic (BONUCA) and the situation in that country.
2.In continuation of my previous report (S/2011/311) dated May 16, 2011, it is the development of events in this country in the areas
political, economic and humanitarian, and the level of security and human rights Rights and reports of the activities of the United Nations
Integrated Office for consolidation of peace in the Central African Republic (BINUCA), who succeeded BONUCA in January 2010.
3. The reporting period was marked by the following events:
a) holding partial legislative elections of September 4, boycotted by the opposition;
b) the progress of disarmament and demobilization ofex-combatants in the north-west, but the continuing lack of clear prospects for
reintegration
c) the commitment by the last national armed group to join the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in Libreville in June 2008
d) the deterioration of the Security in the north-east following clashes between two armed groups;
e) the limited progress of the reform of the security sector, although a key recommendation of the inclusive political dialogue in
December 2008
f) Roundtable partners, 16 and 17 June in Brussels, and g) socioeconomic tensions simmering in the capital.

IX. Human rights and rule of law
39. Since my last report, and DESPITE the efforts of BINUCA and international partners, the status of human rights Remained very
concern. BINUCA reported about several acts of violence against Civilians by the security forces, and defense, Including executions
killings. Areas controlled by army in groups, abused are frequent, harassment and extortion Including Inflicted on the population
checkpoints. My Special Representative performs a thorough examination of the status of human rights in the country in consultation
with the Office of the United Nations Human Rights (OHCHR) to recommend measures to improve the work in this area.
40. BINUCA continued to hold for the security forces and defense,
training on the rule of law, human rights and the right
international humanitarian law. He also organized for 42 members of the civil society and local organizations, including seven women, a
training program on the monitoring of the situation of human rights and violations of these last.
41. Two important issues of human rights continue requiring the attention of the national authorities. First, an increasing number of
people are lynched in the name of witchcraft. This is especially marginal including widows, street children and orphans. Then, several
missions monitoring compliance with human rights noted that female genital girls persisted, particularly in the prefecture Ouaka. The
BINUCA also noted the persistence of sexual and domestic violence, especially in the prefectures of Ouham and Ouham Pende. Pressures
family often prevent victims from accessing justice.
42. That is why BINUCA facilitated national consultations on SGBV to the summit of Heads of State of the Great Lakes region to be held
in Kampala in December 2011 with the support of OHCHR for this region. BINUCA has also received funds center for emergency
funding to support a program partnership with a local NGO and an international NGO to provide of medical, psychosocial and legal
support to victims of violence sexual and gender, especially committed by the LRA in the city of Bangassou Mbomou prefecture.
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OBSERVATOIRE
CENTAFRICAIN DES
DROITS DE L'HOMME
(OCDH)
TRANSLATED FROM FRENCH BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
Bangui: political and security situation critical in 2012 by civil society
Bangui, 21 November (RJDH)

The political and security situation in the Central African Republic is deplorable during the year 2o12. This is the observation made ​​by
Fulgence Zéneth, deputy general secretary of the Central Observatory of Human Right (OCDH), in an interview with RJDH on the issue.

For him, in 2012, the Central African Republic has been exposed to widespread insecurity, especially in the north, northeast, central and
south-east. He refers in particular to the occupation of parts of the country by foreign rebellions such as the Popular Front for the
recovery (FPR) of Chad and ladde Baba's Resistance Army (LRA) of Uganda, Joseph Kony, who continue to commit atrocities in the
south-east, despite the presence of Ugandan forces, and Central America.

"Baba ladde it Chadian rebel who has never fought in his country, but settled on Central African territory. He committed abuses.
Unfortunately, he was repatriated to his country of origin, and nobody addresses the issue of victims. These days, there is even talk of
the possibility of relaxing his men who had been arrested during a battle with the army, "says Mr. Zéneth

For him, Baba ladde should be responsible for all acts committed in the Central African Republic on the civilian population. Even if it is
more about the CAR, human rights are still studying the possibility of entering subregional bodies, regional or continental that it is judged.

In the southeast, the LRA attacks have increased between January and March, jeopardizing the free movement of people and goods.
Despite the presence of U.S. military advisers and Ugandan armed forces and Central and "our compatriots who live in this area continue
to be still in the throes of the Warlord," he laments.

Multiple attacks by unidentified armed men around the city Boali, 90 kilometers from the city of Bangui, are also noteworthy. In these
events terrorizing the population, there are military blunders. There is some evidence to defense forces and security beyond their
mission. "Recently, an FACA stabbed a 21 year old girl in the city of Kaga-Bandoro. These are all facts that concern the human rights
defenders, "exclaimed he.

Apart from these aspects highlighted by OCDH the country was during this year, the scene of several attacks, the rebellion of the Central
People's Democratic Front (FDPC) of Miskine, a close former President Ange Félix Patassé. This armed group committed atrocities on
the population of Kabo, Bantagafo, Paoua, Markounda. A military source had confirmed the presence of this group in the villages of
Koude, Dougouzou and Alim, located approximately 200 kilometers from the city of Bouar (west).

On September 15, the cities of Damara (75 km) and Sibut (195), were attacked by dissidents of the Convention of Patriots for Justice
and Peace (PJCC). What had driven a part of the population, and also disrupted economic and social activities of these cities.

On the political level, Fulgence Zéneth says that the situation is difficult. However it rejoices, the revision of the electoral code CAR has
seen the participation of all living forces of the nation and would ensure less violent elections in 2016. "Many things have changed
fundamentally in this document and may lead future electoral processes, less controversial, "said he.

Also regrets the lack of dialogue between the government and the opposition. "We believe that there should be an ongoing dialogue
between all segments of the country, to put an end to the problems that undermine the development of RCA, "he added.

In the same perspective, November 13, the coordinator of the Front for the cancellation and the resumption of elections (FARE) was
asked to open a dialogue between the Central that will unite all living forces of the nation to discuss challenges the country faces.
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Report
Michel Am-Nondokro Djotodia
Self proclaimed President and Leader
of the Séléka
Rebel Coalition
since 24 March 2013 (coup)
TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS
Current situation: Central African Republic is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked
for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the majority of victims are children trafficked within the country for sexual
exploitation, domestic servitude, street vending, and forced agricultural, mine, market and restaurant labor; to a lesser extent,
children are trafficked from the Central African Republic to Cameroon, Nigeria, and the Democratic Republic of Congo; rebels
conscript children into armed forces within the country

Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Central African Republic is on the Tier 2 Watch List for the third consecutive year for its failure to
show evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in 2007; efforts to address trafficking through vigorous law enforcement
measures and victim protection efforts were minimal, though awareness about trafficking appeared to be increasing in the country;
the government does not actively investigate cases, work to identify trafficking victims among vulnerable populations, or rescue and
provide care to victims; the government has not taken measures to reduce demand for commercial sex acts (2008)