Article 12: Freedoms and the basic rights are recognized and their exercise guaranteed to the citizens under the conditions and the forms envisaged by the Constitution and the law.
Article 13: The Chadians of the two sexes have the same rights and the same duties.
They are equal in front of the law.
Article 14: The State ensures all the equality in front of the law without reference of origin, race, sex, religion, political opinion or social position.
It has the duty to take care of the elimination of all the forms of discrimination with regard to the woman and to ensure the protection of its rights in all the fields of the private and public life.
Article 15: Subject to the political rights, the regularly allowed foreigners on the territory of the Republic of Chad profit from the same rights and freedoms that the Chadian nationals. They are held to conform to the Constitution, with the laws and payments of the Republic.
Article 16: The rights of the people morals are guaranteed by the present Constitution.
Chapter 1 of freedoms and the basic rights
Article 17: The human person is crowned and inviolable. Any individual is entitled to the life, with the integrity of his person, safety, freedom, the protection of his private life and his goods.
Article 18: No one can be subjected, neither with maltreatments or treatments degrading and humiliating, nor with torture.
Article 19: Any individual is entitled to free blooming of his person in the respect of the rights of others, the moralities and the law and order.
Article 20: No one cannot be held in slavery or constraint.
Article 21: The arrests and detentions illegal and arbitrary are prohibited.
Article 22: No one cannot be held in a penal establishment if it does not fall under the blow from a criminal law into force.
Article 23: No one cannot be stopped nor accused that under the terms of a law promulgated before with the facts which are reproached to him.
Article 24: Very prevented is supposed innocent until the establishment of its culpability following a regular lawsuit offering of the guarantees essential to its defense.
Article 25: The sorrow is personal. No one cannot be made responsible and continued for a fact not made by him.
Article 26: The usual and traditional rules relating to the collective penal responsibility are prohibited.
Article 27: The freedoms of thought and expression, communication, conscience, religion, press, association, meeting, circulation, demonstrations and processions are guaranteed to all.
They can be limited only by the respect of freedoms and the rights of others and by the requirement to safeguard the law and order and the moralities. The law determines the conditions of their exercise.
Article 28: Trade-union freedom is recognized;
Any Citizen is free to adhere to the trade union of his choice.
Article 29: The right to strike is recognized.
It is exerted within the framework of the laws which regulate it.
Article 30: The dissolution of associations, the political parties and the trade unions can intervene only under the conditions envisaged by their statutes or legal way.
Article 31: The access to public employment is guaranteed to any Chadian without discrimination no, subject to the specific conditions to each employment.
Article 32: The State recognizes with all the citizens the right to work.
It guarantees to the worker the right remuneration of his services or its production.
No one cannot be injured in its work because of its origins, its opinions, its beliefs, its sex, or its matrimonial situation.
Article 33: Any Chadian is entitled to the culture.
The State has the duty to safeguard and promote the national values of civilization.
Article 34: Any citizen is entitled to creation, the protection and the pleasure of his intellectual and artistic works.
The State ensures the promotion and the protection of the national cultural inheritance as well as artistic and literary production.
Article 35: Any citizen is entitled to the instruction.
The state education is laic and free.
Private teaching is recognized and is exerted under the conditions defined by the law.
Fundamental teaching is obligatory.
Article 36: The State and the decentralized territorial communities create the conditions and the institutions which ensure and guarantee the education of the children.
Article 37: The family is the natural and moral base of the company.
The State and the decentralized territorial communities have the duty to take care of the wellbeing of the family.
Article 38: The parents have the natural right and the duty to raise and educate their children. They are constant in this task by the State and the decentralized territorial communities.
The children cannot be separated from their parents or those which have the load of it only when the latter miss owe them.
Article 39 the State and the decentralized territorial communities create the conditions for the blooming and the wellbeing of youth.
Article 40 the State endeavours to provide for the needs for any citizen who, because of his age or his physical or mental ineptitude, is in the incapacity to work, in particular by the institution of organizations charitable.
Article 41 the private property inviolable and is crowned.
No one can be dispossessed of it only due to duly noted public utility and with the help of a Juste and preliminary compensation.
Article 42 the residence is inviolable. It can be carried out there searchings only in the cases and forms prescribed by the law.
Article 43 Very Chadian A right to freely fix its residence or its residence in an unspecified place of the own territory.
Article 44 Very Chadian A right to circulate freely inside the own territory, to leave there and to return there.
Article 45 the secrecy of the correspondence and the communications is guaranteed by the law.
Article 46 the right of asylum is granted to the foreign nationals under the conditions determined by the law.
The extradition of the political refugees is prohibited.
Article 47 Any person is entitled to a healthy environment.
Article 48 the State and the decentralized territorial communities must take care of the environmental protection.
The conditions of storage, handling and evacuation of toxic or polluting waste coming from national activities are determined by the law.
The transit, the importation, storage, the hiding, discharge on the own territory of toxic or polluting waste foreign are prohibited.
Chapter 2: duties
Article 49 Whole citizen is held to respect the Constitution, the laws and payments as well as the institutions and the symbols of the Republic.
Article the 50 public goods are inviolable. Any person must respect them and protect them.
Article 51 the defense of the fatherland and the integrity of the own territory is a duty for any Chadian.
The military service is obligatory.
The conditions of achievement of this duty are determined by the law.
Article 52 Whole citizen has the duty to respect and protect the environment.
Article 53 Each citizen takes part according to his incomes and of its fortune in the public offices.
Article 54 No one cannot be prevailed of its religious beliefs, nor of its philosophical opinions to withdraw itself from an obligation dictated by the national interest.
Article 55 the State has the duty to protect the legitimate interests from the Chadian nationals abroad.
Article 56 the State guarantees the political neutrality of the administration and the armed forces and safety.
Article 57 the State exerts its whole and permanent sovereignty on all the national richnesses and natural resources for the wellbeing of all the national community.
However, it can concede the exploration and the exploitation of these natural resources on the initiative private.
Article 58 the State guarantees the freedom of company.
The Constitution of the Republic of Chad was adopted by referendum on 31 March 1996. It proclaimed its independence from France on 28 November 1958 and adopted its first Constitution on 11 August 1960. Numerous coups throughout the 60's and 70's saw the constitution suspended and violated repeatedly. On 7 April 1993, the sovereign National Conference reconciled their issues and drafted the Constitution which was adopted three years later. Human Rights guarantees are assured in Part 2 and conform with the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1993 African Charter of Human Rights. For a full English translation of Chad's constitution, click here.