COMOROS
Union of Comoros
Union des Comoros
Joined United Nations:  12 November 1975
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 06 March 2013
CAPITAL
POPULATION
CHIEF OF STATE
SELECTION PROCESS
Moroni
737,284 (July 2012 est.)
As defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every
four years among the elected presidents from the three main islands
in the Union; election last held 26 December 2010; prime minister
appointed by the president; note - the post of prime minister has
been vacant since May 2002

Next scheduled election: 2014
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
SELECTION PROCESS
According to the Comoran Constitution, the President is both the
Chief of State and Head of Government
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
ETHNIC GROUPS
Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
RELIGIONS
Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%
GOVERNMENT
STRUCTURE
Republic with 3 islands and 4 municipalities; Legal system is based on French and Islamic law in a new consolidated code
Executive: As defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the
three main islands in the Union; election last held 26 December 2010 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the
president; note - the post of prime minister has been vacant since May 2002
Legislative: Unicameral Assembly of the Union (33 seats; 15 deputies are selected by the individual islands' local assemblies and
18 by universal suffrage; to serve for five years);
elections: 6 and 20 December 2009; though originally set for July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
Judicial: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal
Assembly, one elected by the Council of each island, and others are former presidents of the republic)
LANGUAGES
Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)
BRIEF HISTORY
The History of Comoros goes back thousands of years. It has been inhabited by various groups throughout this time. France
acquired the islands in the 19th century. Comoros became independent in 1975. It is thought that the earliest inhabitants of the
islands were journeymen from Indonesia-Polynesia, but traces of this original Asian culture have blended seamlessly into successive
waves of African, Arab and Shirazi immigrants. The most notable of these early immigrants were the Shirazi Arab royal clans, who
appeared in Comoros in the 15th and 16th centuries and stayed to build mosques, set up royal house and introduce architecture and
carpentry. Over the centuries, the Comoro Islands were invaded by a succession of diverse groups from the coast of Africa, the
Persian Gulf, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Portuguese explorers visited the archipelago in 1505. In 1529 the French Parmentier
brothers popped in for a visit, but the first reliable European accounts of this part of the world came from the Portuguese explorers,
Diogo Dias and Fernando Soares. The Portuguese failed to capitalise on being the first to reach the islands, and for the next century
or two the islands were used only as a pit stop during voyages up and down the coast of East Africa. In fact, up until the middle of
the 19th century, it was not European explorers but pirates from Madagascar who caused the biggest headaches. During this time
the number of sultans mushroomed at an alarming rate, and at one stage there were no fewer than 12 sultans on the island of Grande
Comore alone. The French turned their attention to the Comoros islands in the middle of the 19th century. The French finally
acquired the islands through a cunning mixture of strategies, including the divide and conquer ploy, chequebook politics and a
serendipitous affair between a sultana and a French trader that was turned to good use. The French kept control of the islands,
quelling unrest and the occasional uprising. "Shirazi" migrants introduced Islam at about the same time. On 25 March 1841, France
annexed the Mawuti Maore sultanate (the name of the island was corrupted in French to "Mayotte") as Mayotte protectorate
(ratified 13 June 1843). In 1852, Andruna is added to Mayotte protectorate and, in 1866, the large sultanate Ndzuwani (on
Anjouan island) as well. On 24 June 1886, the islands of Ngazidja (Grande Comore in French) comprised eleven sultanates, but, in
1886, the Sultan tibe (paramount ruler and Sultan) of Bambao unified them, Ndzuwani (Anjouan), and Mwali sultanate (Mohéli
island in French) become French protectorates, French résidents are posted on the three islands; on 5 September 1887 they are
collectively renamed Protectorate of the Comoros. On 9 April 1908, France declared the Comoros a dependent territory of its
Madagascar colony. On 25 July 1912, it was annexed by France and joined with Mayotte as Mayotte and dependencies, after the
ratification on 23 February 1914 subordinated to the governor general of Madagascar (Comoros dependent colony). From 16 June
1940 - 1942 the colonial administration remained loyal to Vichy France (from 1942, under Free French), but 25 September 1942 -
13 October 1946 they were, like Madagascar, under British occupation. Until the opening of the Suez Canal, the islands used to be
an important refueling and provisioning stop for ships from Europe to the Indian Ocean. Independence came gradually for
Comoros. During the middle of the 20th century the French reluctantly began to accede to reasonable requests, and by 1947
Comoros had become a separately administered colony from Madagascar. After World War II, the islands became a French
overseas territory and were represented in France's National Assembly. Internal political autonomy was granted in 1961.
Agreement was reached with France in 1973 for Comoros to become independent in 1978. On July 6, 1975, however, the
Comorian parliament passed a resolution declaring unilateral independence. The deputies of Mayotte abstained. In two
referendums, in December 1974 and February 1976, the population of Mayotte voted against independence from France (by
63.8% and 99.4% respectively). Mayotte thus remains under French administration, and the Comorian Government has effective
control over only Grande Comore, Anjouan, and Mohéli. In 1961 it was granted autnomous rule and, seven years after the global
unrest and left-wing riots of 1968, Comoros broke all ties with France and established an independent republic. From the very
beginning Mayotte refused to join the new republic and wed itself even more firmly to French protection, but the other islands
remained committed to independence. The first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane, did not last long before
being ousted in a coup by Ali Solih, an atheist with an Islamic background. Solih began with a set of solid socialist ideals that were
designed to modernize the country. However, the problems continued. A French mercenary by the name of Bob Denard, arrived in
Comoros at dawn on 13 May 1978, and removed Solih from power. Solih was shot and killed during the coup. Abdallah returned
to the fold, the mercenaries were given key positions in the ministry, and refirms were attempted. Later, French settlers,
French-owned companies, and Arab merchants established a plantation-based economy that now uses about one-third of the land
for export crops. In 1978, president Ali Soilih, who had a firm anti-French attitude, was killed and Ahmed Abdallah came to
power. Under the reign of Abdallah, Denard was commander of the Presidential Guard (PG) and de facto ruler of the country,
trained, supported and funded by the white regimes in South Africa (SA) and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in return to the permission
to set up a secret listening station on the islands. South-African agents had to keep an ear on the important ANC bases in Lusaka
and Dar es Salaam and to watch the war in Mozambique, in which SA played an active role. The Comoros were also used for
evading arms sanctions. When in 1981 François Mitterrand was elected president Denard lost the support of the French intelligence
service, but he managed to strengthen the link between SA and the Comoros. Besides the Guard, Denard established his own
company SOGECOM, in both the security and building business. He seemed to be pretty rich. In period 1985-87 the relationship
of the PG with the local Comorians became worse. At the end of the 1980s the South Africans did not want to continue to support
a mercenary regime and France also wanted to get rid of the mercenaries. Finally, also President Abdallah wanted the mercenaries
to leave. Their response was a (third) coup and the death of President Abdallah in which Denard and his men were probably
involved. The SA and the French government subsequently forced Denard and his mercenaries to leave the islands in 1989. Said
Mohamed Djohar became president. His time in office was turbulent, including an impeachment attempt in 1991 and a coup attempt
in 1992. On September 28, 1995 Bob Denard and a group of mercenaries took over the Comoros islands in a coup (named
operation Kaskari by the mercenaries) against President Djohar. France immediately severely denounced the coup, and backed by
the 1978 defense agreement with the Comoros, President Jacques Chirac ordered his special forces to retake the island. Bob
Denard began to take measures to stop the coming invasion. A new presidential guard was created. Strong points armed with heavy
machine guns were set up around the island, particularly around the islands two airports. On October 3, 1995, 11 p.m., the French
deployed 600 men against a force of 33 mercenaries and a 300 man dissident force. Denard however ordered his mercenaries not
to fight. Within 7 hours the airports at Iconi and Hahaya and the French Embassy in Moroni were secured. By 3:00 p.m. The next
day Bob Denard and his mercenaries had surrendered. This operation, codename Azalée, was remarkable, because there were no
casualties, and just in seven days, plans were drawn up and soldiers were deployed. Denard was taken to France and jailed. Prime
minister Caambi El-Yachourtu became acting president until Djohar returned from exile in January 1996. In March of 1996,
following presidential elections, Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim, a member of the civilian government that Denard had tried to set up
in October 1995, became president. In 1997, the islands of Anjouan and Mohéli declared their independence from Comoros. A
subsequent attempt by the government to re-establish control over the rebellious islands by force failed, and presently the African
Union is brokering negotiations to effect a reconciliation. In May 2006, Ahmed Abdallah Sambi was elected from the island of
Anjouan to be the president of the Union of Comoros. He is a well-respected Sunni cleric that studied in the Sudan, Iran and Saudi
Arabia. He is respectfully called "Ayatollah" by his supporters but is considered a moderate Islamist.
The invasion of Anjouan
(code-named Operation Democracy in Comoros), on March 25, 2008, was an amphibious assault led by the Comoros, backed by
African Union (AU) forces, including troops from Sudan, Tanzania, Senegal, along with logistical support from Libya and France.
The objective of the invasion was to topple Colonel Mohamed Bacar's leadership in Anjouan, an island part of the Union of
Comoros, when he refused to step down after a disputed 2007 election, in defiance of the federal government and the AU. The
Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean has had a fractious history since independence from France in 1975, experiencing more
than 20 coups or attempted coups. The invasion occurred on the early morning of March 25, 2008. The main towns were quickly
overrun and the island was declared under the control of the invading forces the same day. Mohamed Bacar managed to escape to
Mayotte on March 26 and requested political asylum. He was subsequently held in custody there by the French administration and
brought to the island of Réunion. On May 15, France rejected Bacar's request for asylum but the French refugee office ruled that
the ousted leader could not be extradited to the Comoros because of the risk of persecution. Legislative elections were held in
Comoros on 6 and 20 December 2009; though originally set for July 2009, they were postponed until after a constitutional
referendum was held. Elections were then scheduled to take place on 29 November. The 2010 presidential election in Comoros
was held on 7 November, with a second round on 26 December. Gubernatorial elections for each of the three main islands of
Comoros were held on the same dates. There had been an attempt to hold them on 27 November 2011 and extend the presidential
term until then, but the Constitutional Court ruled this unconstitutional in May 2010. Elections are scheduled for 2014.

Source: Wikipedia: History of Comoros
ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a young and
rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence
level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
including fishing, hunting, and forestry, contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports.
Export income is heavily reliant on the three main crops of vanilla, cloves, and ylang-ylang and Comoros' export earnings are easily
disrupted by disasters such as fires. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk
of imports. The government - which is hampered by internal political disputes - lacks a comprehensive strategy to attract foreign
investment and is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, improve
health services, diversify exports, promote tourism, and reduce the high population growth rate. Political problems have inhibited
growth, which averaged only about 1% in 2006-09 but more than 2% per year in 2010-12. Remittances from 150,000 Comorans
abroad help supplement GDP. In September 2009 the IMF approved Comoros for a three-year $21 million loan, but the
government has struggled to meet program targets, such as restricting spending on wages, strengthening domestic revenue
collection, and moving forward on structural reforms.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Comoros)
POLITICAL CLIMATE
The new Union of the Comoros consists of three islands, Grande Comore, Anjouan and Mohéli. Each island has a president, who
shares the presidency of the Union on a rotating basis. The president and his vice-presidents are elected for a term of four years.
The constitution states that, "the islands enjoy financial autonomy, freely draw up and manage their budgets".

President Assoumani Azali of Grande Comore is the first Union president. President Mohamed Bacar of Anjouan formed his 13-
member government at the end of April, 2003.

A referendum took place on May 16, 2009 to decide whether to cut down the government's unwieldy political bureaucracy. 52.7%
of those eligible voted, and 93.8% of votes were cast in approval of the referendum. The referendum would cause each island's
president to become a governor and the ministers to become councilors.

On 26 December 2010, Ikililou DHOININE won the second round of presidential elections in the Comoros islands. DHOININE
captured 61 percent of the vote, compared to his main competitor, Mohamed Said FAZUL, who took 33 percent. FAZUL
promised demonstrations against the results, claiming there were instances of ballot box stuffing and intimidation. The government
has responded by placing a ban on rallies, which will be in effect until the Constitutional Court officially declares a winner on January
15. The presidency of the Comoros rotates every four years among the country’s three main islands. This cycle, the island of Moheli
elected three candidates who competed in the second round. The second round took place among the entire country. This will be
the first time a politician from Moheli will become president.
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of Comoros; International Foundation for Electoral Systems
INTERNATIONAL
DISPUTES
Claims French-administered Mayotte and challenges France's and Madagascar's claims to Banc du Geyser, a drying reef in the
Mozambique Channel; in May 2008, African Union forces are called in to assist the Comoros military recapture Anjouan Island
from rebels who seized it in 2001
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
REFUGEES AND
INTERNALLY
DISPLACED PERSONS
(IDPS)
None reported.
ILLICIT DRUGS
None reported.
Fondation Comorienne des
Droits de l’Homme (FCDH)
U. S. STATE
DEPARTMENT
HUMAN RIGHTS STATEMENTS, ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUES
2011 Human Rights Reports: Comoros
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
20
11 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May
25, 2012

The Union of the Comoros is a constitutional, multiparty republic. The country consists of three islands--Grande Comore (also called
Ngazidja), Anjouan, and Moheli--and claims a fourth, Mayotte, which France governs. In November and December 2010 elections were
held to choose a new union president as well as governors for each of the three islands. Serious electoral irregularities on the island of
Anjouan noted by some observers were not sufficient to change the outcome of the national contests, and the constitutional court upheld
the results of the elections. On May 26, former vice president Ikililou Dhoinine became president of the Comoros. Security forces
reported to civilian authorities.

Official corruption, bribery in particular, was a pervasive problem in the government at all levels. Children were subject to various forms
of abuse from violence to forced labor, including the worst forms of child labor, and trafficking in persons. The government did not
effectively enforce laws providing protections of worker’s rights.

Other human rights problems reported during the year included poor prison conditions, long pretrial detention, restrictions on press
freedom, violence and societal discrimination against women, and criminalization of consensual same-sex sexual activity.

Impunity for violations of human rights existed. The government rarely took steps to prosecute, much less punish, officials anywhere in
the government who committed abuses.
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UNITED NATIONS
HUMAN RIGHTS
COUNCIL
24 October 2012
Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women
Fifty-third session
1–
19 October 2012
Concluding observations of the Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women
Comoros

A.
Introduction
2. The Committee appreciates that the State party submitted its combined initial, second, third and fourth periodic report although it was
long overdue. It appreciates the
government’s written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by its pre-session working group
in the absence of a report (CEDAW/C/COM/Q/4/Add.1); however, it regrets
the absence of written replies to the list of issues and
questions with respect to its combined
periodic report (CEDAW/C/COM/Q/1-4).
3.
The Committee appreciates the dialogue that took place between the Ambassador Sultan Chouzour, Permanent Representative of
Comoros to the United Nations in Geneva
and the Committee, although the Committee regrets that no answers were provided to some
of the questions raised, and that some of the answers provided were not sufficiently clear,
precise or detailed. The Committee
therefore regrets
the absence of a State party’s delegation composed by representatives from relevant ministries and institutions from
Comoros,
while underlining the benefits of broad-based participation in a constructive dialogue with the Committee to improve the
implementation of the Convention at the
national level.

B. Positive Aspects
4. The Committee notes with appreciation the adoption of:
a)
T he legislation establishing the National Human Rights Institution, in March 2012;
b) The National Policy on Gender Equality and Equity and its implementationwith the support of the United Nations agencies;
c) The Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy and its plan of action, which incorporates a gender perspective.

C. Factors and difficulties preventing the effective implementation of the Convention
6. The Committee recognizes that the deteriorating economic situation affecting the State party for the last 20 years, the political conflict
and the overall poverty situation of its population poses difficulties in the implementation of the Convention.
However, the Convention requires the State party to pursue its policy of eliminating discrimination against women, by all appropriate
means and without delay. The delay cannot be justified on any grounds, including the constraints within the State party, in accordance
with paragraph 29 of the Committee’s general recommendation No. 28 (2010).

D. Principal areas of concern and recommendations
7.The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement all the provisions of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and views the concerns and recommendations identified in
the present concluding observations as requiring the priority attention of the State party between now and the submission of the next
periodic report. Consequently, the Committee urges the State party to focus on those areas in its implementation activities and to report
on the actions taken and results achieved in its next periodic report. The Committee calls upon the State party to submit the present
concluding observations to all relevant ministries, to the National Assembly and to the judiciary, so as to ensure their full implementation.

National Assembly
8. While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility and is particularly accountable for the full implementation of the
obligations of the State party under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of the State
apparatus and invites the State party to encourage the National Assembly, in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the
necessary steps with regard to the implementation of the present concluding observations between now and the State party’s next
reporting process under the Convention.

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FREEDOM HOUSE
Freedom In The World 2012 Report
Political Rights Score: 3
Civil Liberties Score: 4
Status: Partly Free

Overview
Former vice president Ikililou Dhoinine was sworn in as president on May 26, 2011, after winning a December 2010 election. An
opposition party in September filed a corruption complaint against Dhoinine’s predecessor, Ahmed Abdallah Sambi, for alleged misuse of
public funds while in office.


In December 2009 legislative elections, the president’s supporters—the Baobab coalition—won 19 of the 24 directly elected seats. Sambi’
s term of office expired in May 2010, but an election to choose his successor was postponed due to political disputes. This delay
provoked tension, especially among residents of Mohéli, which was the next island scheduled to hold the office of federal president.

In December 2010, Sambi’s protégé, Vice President Ikililou Dhoinine, won the presidential election with 61 percent of the vote. He
became the first president of Comoros from Mohéli. His main rival, Mohamed Said Fazul, claimed fraud. However, the national election
monitoring group upheld the legitimacy of the election, and Dhoinine was sworn in on May 26, 2011. Opponents alleged that the long
transition period, combined with the delayed election, effectively extended Sambi’s term by one year.

Large numbers of Comorans illegally emigrate to Mayotte to settle or to seek entry into metropolitan France, and the economy depends
heavily on remittances and foreign aid. In 2009, the global economic downturn contributed to delays and suspensions of public-sector
salary payments and a decline in public services. These problems continued in 2011; in June, the legislature took action to try to reduce
the government’s unsustainably high wage burden by reining in civil service salaries.

Comoros is an electoral democracy. Since 1996, Comorans have voted freely in several parliamentary and presidential elections. The
unicameral Assembly of the Union consists of 33 members, with 9 selected by the assemblies of the three islands and 24 by direct
popular vote; all members serve five-year terms. Prior to the 2009 reforms, 15 seats had been appointed by the islands’ assemblies and
18 had been elected. Each of the three islands also has an individual parliament, which is directly elected. Political parties are mainly
defined by their positions regarding the division of power between the federal and local governments.

Corruption remains a major problem. There have been reports of corruption at all levels of the government, judiciary, and civil service,
as well as among the police and security forces.

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AMNESTY
INTERNATIONAL
Document - Suggested recommendations to states included in the fifth round of Universal Periodic Review - May 2009
Suggested recommendations to states included in the fifth round of Universal Periodic Review1
May 2009

Recommendations to the government of Comoros


International Criminal Court

*To accede to the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court and implement it in national law.
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HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
UAE: Joint UPR Submission by Human Rights Watch, the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information, the Gulf Centre
for Human Rights and Index on Censorship
December 1, 2012

Human Rights Watch, the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information, the Gulf Centre for Human Rights and Index on Censorship
worked together in coalition to campaign for the release of the UAE 5 in 2011. (See: http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/30/uae-expunge-
activists-convictions)


The human rights situation in the United Arab Emirates has worsened since the Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review
(UPR) four years ago as the country failed to uphold many of its pledges. UAE authorities have clamped down on freedom of
expression, assembly, and association, especially following popular uprisings across the Arab world during the spring of 2011. The UAE’
s election to the HRC and the forthcoming UPR coincided with a deteriorating rights situation.  

Stateless Persons and Citizenship Issues
The UAE hosts between 10,000 and 100,000 stateless residents known as Bidun, (“without,” referring to their statelessness). Many of
the Bidun population in the UAE trace their origins to nomadic tribes that previously moved freely around the gulf region or later
immigrants living in the UAE who failed to register for nationality when the country was formed in 1971. Due to their stateless status the
Bidun face severe obstacles in many areas such as access to healthcare and education, and many live in poverty. On July 18, the UAE
deported a political activist for the rights of the Bidun to Thailand despite the fact that he was born and raised in the UAE and had never
previously left the country.

UAE activists reported that Interior Ministry officials have stepped up pressure on stateless residents in 2012 to apply for citizenship in
other countries to which they have no connection as a first step in establishing legal residency in the UAE. UAE authorities reportedly
approached the Comoros Islands with financial incentives to grant citizenship to stateless residents.

In May 2012, authorities detained Ahmed Abd al-Khaleq, a stateless Bidun and member of the “UAE 5,” one day after he received
notification that Comoros has approved his citizenship application. Local activists said he has no connection to the Comoros and has
never visited the islands, but that he had applied for Comoros citizenship under pressure from UAE authorities, who told him that
obtaining a nationality was a necessary step in regularizing his residency status in the UAE. Authorities first threatened him with
deportation to the Comoros, and then later to Thailand. Abd al-Khaleq supports his parents and seven sisters, all of whom were born in
the UAE and have never left the country. At time of writing, Abd al-Khaleq was still in detention.

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OFFICIAL
GOVERNMENT HUMAN
RIGHTS STATEMENT
H.E. Mr. Ikililou Dhoinine, President
27 September 2012
Statement Summary:

IKILILOU DHOININE, President of Comoros, said that, as had been the case last year, the General Assembly was being held yet again
in a global context marked by uncertainty and multifaceted crises. It took place at a moment when Syria was suffering a great tragedy,
and the recent resignation of former Secretary-General Kofi Annan as the Joint Special Envoy to that country showed the complexity of
managing such a crisis. It, therefore, behoved the international community to act. Equally important was the Palestinian cause, he added,
which had long awaited a just solution. Comoros reiterated its full support to the Palestinian people, and associated itself with the solution
of a Palestinian State living side by side in peace with Israel. Noting, in addition, that the situation in northern Mali also remained a major
source of concern, Comoros associated itself with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and African Union
efforts to bring an end to the conflict.

A few decades ago, Comoros had committed itself resolutely to the path of democracy, and now it lent its support to the cause of peace,
justice and fairness. As President, he said, he would “leave no stone unturned” in his promotion of democracy and good governance in
Comoros. In that regard, he had given priority to the fight against corruption, with a new anti-corruption law and establishment of a
national commission to that end.

The global financial and economic crisis lay at the heart of this year’s General Debate yet again, he went on. The crisis had revealed the
urgent need for in-depth reform of the international financial institutions. The effects of the crisis — and a related energy crisis — were
increasingly palpable, especially in developing States. Another major concern was climate change, which disproportionately affected
small island developing States. In Comoros, devastating rains had recently come down, affecting an estimated ten per cent of the
population. Conveying gratitude to all partners that had provided humanitarian assistance in response to that unprecedented disaster, he
noted that the country had elaborated a rapid recovery plan which spelled out actions aimed at rebuilding over a 6-12 month period. He
called on partners to help support that recovery effort, whose cost was estimated at some $18 million.

The time had come to address several important issues at the international level, including making operational the Copenhagen Climate
Fund. Commitments to States of the global South must also be honoured, and countries must abide by commitments in emission
reductions. Also, no effort should be spared in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Faced with those challenges — all of
which were equally important — he called on the most developed States to ensure that mechanisms aimed at mitigating the financial
crisis in Europe also be applied to the most fragile States in order to prevent more serious consequences, in particular as they depended
on the financial contributions of their diasporas. Comoros, a beneficiary of the International Monetary Fund’s extended credit
programme, also hoped to reach, by December 2012, the point of achievement of the initiative for small heavily-indebted countries.

Finally, he called, yet again, on France to engage in “candid and sincere dialogue” on the question of the Comorian Island of Mayotte.
The fact that the island remained under French administration constituted a threat to the peace and stability of the three other Comorian
Islands, he said, adding that it was no secret that the island had always served as a base for the enemies of Comoros, who did not wish
to see the island progress. This year, several men, women and children had perished in the waters separating the Comorian islands of
Anjouan and Mayotte, as a result of the visa imposed by France on the islands of Anjouan, Grande Comore and Moheli. He hoped, in that
regard, that France would honour its commitments under international law and respond positively to the calls to return Mayotte to its
natural home in the Comoros.
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FONDATION
COMORIENNE DES
DROITS DE L’HOMME
(FCDH)
TRANSLATED FROM FRENCH BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
Worrying shortage of rice in Anjouan
Made Mutsamudu, July 9, 2
012
The Executive Committee, Section of Anjouan
Abdallah Salim Mazamb


This is six (6) weeks from the island of Anjouan experiencing a shortage of rice at a time when patent Comoros live period "Mashihuli" ie
the period of the great wedding celebrations    where rice consumption is so important in the 4 corners of the Union of Comoros. This
context is due after the market monopolisation rice by ONICOR that fails to ensure a regular supply and therefore the first food of the
country.    While a decade, the rice trade in the island was liberalized.

Moreover, it should be noted that the approach of Ramadan, we already recorded an outbreak of prices and inflation becoming more
worrisome as the cost of living has stagnated in both the private sector the public, even if there is a shy regularity salaries of the state.

Based on this observation, the section of Anjouan FCDH calls the competent authorities the following recommendations:

Ø    Liberalization of the rice market because free enterprise is part of human rights;

Ø    The inflation to allow the population and especially the poorest cope with life every day during the month of Ramadan.
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TRANSLATED FROM FRENCH BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
CONDEMNATION of French policy in the Comoros
Posted By mzekukule On Thursday, August 16, 2012 06:18. In Comoros News

CONFERENCE ON THE QUESTION OF THE ISLAND OF MAYOTTE COMORIAN
BY THE GROUP FOR THE RECOVERY OF THE INTEGRITY OF THE COMOROS
___________________________________
DECLARATION

* Considering the results of the referendum on self-determination 22
décembre 1974, 95% in favor of the accession of the Comoros
[Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Mwali (Moheli) Ndzuwani (Anjouan) etMaore (Mayotte)], independence,

* Considering the unilateral declaration of independence of the Comoros, in line with the inalienable principle of the inviolability of
borders inherited from colonization,

* Considering the "resolution 3385 of 12 November 1975 the UN admitted Comoros as a member of the Organization" and [...] "rejecting
as void, the French confiscation occurred a year earlier! "

* Considering the Résolution31 / 4 of the United Nations, adopted on 21 October 1976, stating that the occupation by France on the
island of Mayotte, "constitutes a flagrant violation of the unity of the Comorian State." And that the General Assembly declare null and
void all elections organized by the French government and rejects anticipation, "all other consultations could be held later in Comorian
territory of Mayotte by France" ...

* Considering the resolutions of the Arab League, including those issued March 29, 2012 in Baghdad, reaffirming its support for the
Comoros in their claim to sovereignty over the Comorian island of Mayotte,

* Considering the resolutions of the OAU (Organization of African Unity) became AU (African Union), including those issued January
31, 2011 in Addis Ababa, condemning the departmentalization of the Comorian island of Mayotte, urging that frank and constructive
dialogue under the auspices of the UN Secretary General is established in order to stop all the terms of the actual return of Mayotte in the
Comoros,

The signatories of this declaration,
1 - Condemn strongly the French political Comoros constantly impacted by the statutory changes desired and planned unilaterally by
diehard supporters of "the French Mayotte". And, by dint of pressure, blackmail induced by a policy of fait accompli, the law and the
reason of the strongest, which never ceases as:
consolidate each year, with, it must be said, the active complicity of the authorities, with the illegal occupation of the Comorian island of
Mayotte. Occupation locked by the "Balladur Visa" criminogenic, responsible for more than ten thousand deaths Comoros, determined to
go in further costs,
permanently destabilize a small defenseless state, by French mercenaries interposed associated with henchmen Comoros working to
bring the country into cups set, interspersed among other things, even deportation, assassinations of heads of state Comoros,
advantage of the credulity and docility legendary Comorian authorities to get its hands on the Comorian island of Mayotte, in spite of
many arguments against it, the party Comoros obstinately refuses to enforce. Therefore nothing surprising if France was able to
smoothly and départementaliser "rupéiser" the Comorian island of Mayotte.

2 - Urge Comorian authorities to comply strictly with the spirit and letter of the Constitution Comorian adequacy, in relation to the
Franco-Comorian on Mayotte, with the resolutions of international bodies,
by the triptych integrity, sovereignty and independence, a casus belli, non-transferable nor negotiable.
in fulfilling the duties of their charge of ensuring the safety, well-being and good living of all Comorians where they are. And a fortiori
where the Comoros Mayotte other islands suffer martyrdom, in total disregard of the Comorian authorities, rather inclined to lend a hand
to the French administration,
putting an end to scandalous "renewed the imaginary boundaries" that are forced population displacements, called "crimes against
humanity" by the ICC (International Criminal Court), using aircraft and floating structures registered in Comoros,
breaking the silence guilty of the infamous "Visa Balladur," responsible for more than ten thousand deaths Comorian in the inlets will
Anjouan to Mayotte,
by reaffirming symbolic acts, but also spectacular, where the situation allows, the inalienable and imprescriptible ownership of Mayotte
whole natural (at the top of the state find appropriate ways and means to provide for Comorian island occupied the fourth, the fourth
vice-president of the Union of the Comoros, which he was entitled; book ministerial posts to nationals Mayotte short, in all
circumstances, maintain the hope of returning Mayotte whole natural ...)

3 - Call:
held by organizations of European civil society of an international conference on international law and the question of Mayotte;
political formations concerned to see the Comoros recover their right to reinstatement in Mayotte national sovereignty, as well as
organizations of French civil society, to a conference on French law and the question of Mayotte;
Comorian authorities to enter the General Assembly of the United Nations for the appointment by the Secretary General of Mr. Mayotte
asked to propose ways and means for returning Mayotte in the Comoros;
Forum of African citizens for democracy and the fight against the return of colonialism in Africa to take up the question of Mayotte to
make their own claim of civil society Comorian on the reintegration of Mayotte in the Comoros;
associations of the African Diaspora and Comorian to November 12 of each year, the date of admission of the Comoros to the United
Nations, a day of explanation, information, awareness and mobilization on the release of the Comorian island of Mayotte from French
colonialism,
political formations concerned to see the Comoros recover their right to reinstatement in Mayotte national sovereignty and organizations
French civil society, to a conference on French law and the question of Mayotte;
Comorian authorities to seize the UN Commission for Human Rights on the massive, flagrant and repeated by the occupying power and
administering the rights to Mayotte.
rehabilitation of the Liberation Front of Mayotte (FROLIMA), destined to become indispensable interlocutor Comorian authorities,
international organizations and civil society organizations in Africa. To do this, a national budget will be allocated to facilitate the struggle
for reintegration of Mayotte.
4 - Waiting:
French authorities, a powerful and chivalrous, worthy of the Land of Human Rights, pegging the body with panache, prints values ​​of
tolerance, humanity and generosity. They grow up in working towards a harmonious relationship in the sense of a true understanding,
honest and genuine reconciliation unambiguously between four Comorian islands and not in a logic of exclusion, ostracism,
confrontation and rejection of the other ...
Comorian authorities, they behave, not as agents auxiliaries of the French occupation in Mayotte, Comoros true patriots but respectful of
the spirit and the letter of their Constitution and the relevant resolutions of bodies internationales.Et Above all, they mark the years of
their remaining term, the seal of honor and courage, engaging whatever price, in a process of regaining our sovereignty, our dignity and
integrity. And it goes by the extirpation of the Franco-Comorian on Mayotte, the camera incongruous to submit to international
arbitration original.

This 05/08/2012, signed:

Political parties (Comoros Alternative, Djawabu, Shuma ...) The associations of civil society [CAAC (Collectif des Associations des Amis
des Comores), (GAC Artists Guild Comoros) GRITAC (Reflection Group on Territorial Integrity of archipelago of the Comoros), SOS
Democracy Comoros ACDH (Comorian Association of Human Rights) ...]
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Report
Ikililou Dhonine
President since 26 December 2010
TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS
None reported.
Ikililou Dhonine
President since 26 December 2010
Mohamed Ali Soilihi
Vice President since 26 December 2010
ASSOCIATION
COMORIENNE DES
DROITS DE L’HOMME
(ACDH)