French Republic
Republique Francaise
Joined United Nations:  24 October 1945
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 03 August 2012
65,630,692 (July 2012 est.)
62,814,233 metropolitan France (July 2012 est.)
Francois Hollande
President of France since 15 May 2012
French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
Election last held 22 April and 6 May 2012
Next scheduled election:  spring of 2017
Jean-Marc Ayrault
Prime Minister since 17 May 2007
Prime Minister nominated by the National Assembly majority
and appointed by the president
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%-10%, unaffiliated 4%
overseas departments: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, pagan
Republic with 26 regions (regions, singular - region)- 22 metropolitan regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of
Corse or Corsica) and 4 overseas regions ;  Legal system is a civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts
Executive: - President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (changed from seven-year term in October 2000);
election last held 22 April and 6 May 2012 (next to be held in the spring of 2017); prime minister nominated by the
National Assembly majority and appointed by the president
Legislative: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (348 seats; 328 for metropolitan
France and overseas departments, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1
for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members
indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve six-year terms; one third elected every three years); and the National
Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; 555 for metropolitan France, 15 for overseas departments, 7 for
overseas dependencies; members elected by popular vote under a single-member majority system to serve five-year
elections: Senate - last held 25 September 2011 (next to be held in September 2014); National Assembly - last held
on 10 and 17 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2017)
Judicial: Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of
the High Council of the Judiciary); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (three members appointed by the
president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the
Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat
French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)
The Neanderthals, the earliest Homo sapiens, began to occupy Europe from about 200,000 BC. but seem to have died
out by about 30,000 years ago, presumably out-competed by the modern humans during a period of cold weather. The
earliest modern humans — Homo sapiens — entered Europe (including France) around 50,000 years ago (the Upper
Palaeolithic). Settled mainly by Celtic peoples (that the Romans referred to as the "Gauls"), a shrinking area of Basque
population in the southwest and Ligurian population on the southern coast, the area of modern France comprised the
bulk of the region of Gaul (Latin: Gallia) under the rule of the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century
AD. In 486,Clovis I, leader of the Salian Franks to the east, conquered the Roman territory between the Loire and the
Somme, subsequently uniting most of northern and central France under his rule and adopting in 496 the Roman
Catholic form of Christianity (over the Arianism preferred by rival Germanic rulers). In recognition of his successes and
his political support for the Papacy, Charlemagne was in 800 crowned Emperor of the Romans, or Roman Emperor in
the West, by Pope Leo III: on the death of his son Louis I (emperor 814-840), however, the empire was divided
among Louis's three sons (Treaty of Verdun, 843). After a last brief reunification (884-887), the imperial title ceased to
be held in the western part which was to form the basis of the future French kingdom. Under Carolingian kingship the
Kingdom was ravaged by Viking raiders. In this struggle some important figures such as Count Odo of Paris and his
brother King Robert had arisen to fame and became Kings.It can be said France became a truly centralised kingdom
under Saint Louis who brought several administrative reforms although as previously mentioned the royal power was
becoming more firm from Louis VI. France evolved from a feudal country to an increasingly centralized state (albeit
with many regional differences) organized around a powerful absolute monarchy which relied on the doctrine of the
Divine Right of Kings and the explicit support of the established Church. On the eve of the French Revolution of 1789,
France was in a profound institutional and financial crisis, but the ideas of the Enlightenment had begun to permeate the
educated classes of society. On July 14, 1789, after four hours of combat, the insurgents seized the Bastille prison,
killing the governor and several of his guards. After the first great victory of the French revolutionary troops at the battle
of Valmy on 1792 September 20 the French First Republic was proclaimed the day after on 1792 September 21. In
1799, Napoleon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul, and in 1802 he was made First Consul for life. The period
of 1802–1814 is known as that of the Napoleonic Wars, where Napoleon extended a French Empire over most of
Europe, until overreaching to Russian lands. The disaster of the march on Moscow would lead to Napoleon's defeat at
the Battle of Nations in 1813 and his abdication in 1814. In 1830 discontent culminated in an uprising in the streets of
Paris, known as the July Revolution. Louis-Philippe's "July Monarchy" (1830–1848) is generally seen as a period
during which the haute bourgeoisie was dominant. France was ruled by Emperor Napoleon III of France from 1852 to
1870. The era saw great industrialization, urbanization (including the massive rebuilding of Paris by Baron Haussmann)
and economic growth, but Napoleon III's foreign policies (including the French intervention in Mexico in which
Napoleon tried to establish the emperor Maximilian in Mexico) would be catastrophic. With the humiliating defeat of
Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the fall of the second Empire, the French legislature established the Third Republic
which was to last until the military defeat of 1940. World War I (1914–1918) brought great losses of troops and
resources. Fought in large part on French soil, it lead to approximately 1.4 million French dead including civilians (see
World War I casualties), and four times as many casualties. The stipulations of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) were
severe: Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France; Germany was required to take full responsibility for the war and
to pay war reparations; the German industrial Saarland, a coal and steel region, was occupied by France. In the 1920s,
France established an elaborate system of border defences (the Maginot Line) and alliances (see Little Entente) to
offset resurgent German strength and in the 1930s, the massive losses of the war lead many in France to choose a
policy guaranteeing peace, even in the face of Hitler's violations of the Versailles treaty and (later) his demands at
Munich in 1938; this would be the much maligned policy of appeasement. The German Blitzkrieg began its attack in
May 1940, completely bypassing the Maginot Line. In six weeks of savage fighting the French lost 130,000, the
majority of the casualties they would suffer in the war. France surrendered to Nazi Germany on June 24, 1940. Nazi
Germany occupied three fifths of France's territory, leaving the rest to the new Vichy government, a Nazi puppet
regime, established on July 10, 1940. France was liberated by allied forces in 1944. After a short period of provisional
government initially led by General Charles de Gaulle, a new constitution (October 13, 1946) established the Fourth
Republic under a parliamentary form of government controlled by a series of coalitions. The May 1958 seizure of
power in Algiers by French army units and French settlers opposed to concessions in the face of Arab nationalist
insurrection led to the fall of the French government and a presidential invitation to de Gaulle to form an emergency
government to forestall the threat of civil war. In May 1968 students revolted, with a variety of demands including
educational, labor and governmental reforms, sexual and artistic freedom, and the end of the Vietnam War. The student
protest movement quickly joined with labor and mass strikes erupted. While France continues to revere its rich history
and independence, French leaders increasingly tie the future of France to the continued development of the European
Union. Current President Jacques Chirac assumed office on May 17, 1995, after a campaign focused on the need to
combat France's stubbornly high unemployment rate. The French have stood among the strongest supporters of NATO
and EU policy in the Balkans. Nicolas Sarkozy was elected President in an election last held 22 April and 6 May 2007.
The problem of high unemployment has yet to be resolved. In 2008, France was one of the first states to recognise
Kosovo as an independent nation. In 2012 Sarkozy ran for re-election but was defeated by François Hollande who
advocated a growth policy in contrast to the austerity policy advocated by Germany's Angela Merkel as a way of
tackling the European sovereign debt crisis.
Sources:  Wikipedia: History of France
According to historian René Rémond's famous classification of the right-wings in France, this tradition belongs to the
Orleanist inheritance, while Gaullists inherited from Bonapartism and a tradition of state intervention issued from the
National Council of Resistance (CNR)'s welfare state program after the war.

However, neo-Gaullists have since rallied economic liberalism. The so-called right-wing of the PS: Francois Hollande,
Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Ségolène Royal have done likewise.

Libertarianism as such is rare in France; it is considered a form of ultra-liberalism or neo-liberalism and upheld only by
right-wingers such as Alain Madelin.

Some rightists, such as Nicolas Sarkozy, favour radical change in the relationship between the government and the free-

They argue that for the last 30 years, under both left-wing and right-wing governments, the French have been misled
into believing that things could go on without real reforms. One may say that they favour a Thatcherite approach.

Others on the right (including Dominique de Villepin) as well as some on the left argue in favour of gradual reforms.

In comparison, the refusal of the French electorate to vote for the proposed European Constitution was interpreted by
some — in particular the French Communist Party and far-left parties such as LO or the LCR as a popular refusal of
libéralisme, which the European Union is perceived to embody. Some such as Laurent Fabius have argued that the
Socialist Party should thus have a more "left-wing" line.

It is worth noting that the French political system is currently undergoing a loss of legitimacy as the abstention rates has
more and more increased over the last elections to reach record levels so far.

A presidential election was held in France on 22 April 2012 (or 21 April in some overseas departments and territories),
with a second round run-off held on 6 May (or 5 May for those same territories) to elect the President of France (who
is also ex officio one of the two joint heads of state of Andorra, a sovereign state). The incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy was
running for a second successive and, under the terms of the constitution, final term in the election. The first round ended
with the selection of Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande as second round participants, as neither of them received
a majority of votes cast in the first round. Hollande won the runoff with a vote of 51.63% of the vote to Sarkozy's
48.37%. The presidential election was followed by a legislative election in June.
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of France
France was transitioning from an economy that has featured extensive government ownership and intervention to one
that relies more on market mechanisms but is in the midst of a euro-zone crisis. The government has partially or fully
privatized many large companies, banks, and insurers, and has ceded stakes in such leading firms as Air France, France
Telecom, Renault, and Thales. It maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and
defense industries. With at least 75 million foreign tourists per year, France is the most visited country in the world and
maintains the third largest income in the world from tourism. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which
they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that reduce income disparity and the
impact of free markets on public health and welfare. France's real GDP contracted 2.6% in 2009, but recovered
somewhat in 2010 and 2011. The unemployment rate increased from 7.4% in 2008 to 9.3% in 2010 and 9.1% in
2011. Lower-than-expected growth and increased unemployment have cut government revenues and increased
borrowing costs, contributing to a deterioration of France's public finances. The government budget deficit rose sharply
from 3.4% of GDP in 2008 to 7.5% of GDP in 2009 before improving to 5.8% of GDP in 2011, while France's public
debt rose from 68% of GDP to 86% over the same period. Under President SARKOZY, Paris implemented austerity
measures that eliminated tax credits and froze most government spending in an effort to bring the budget deficit under
the 3% euro-zone ceiling by 2013 and to highlight France's commitment to fiscal discipline at a time of intense financial
market scrutiny of euro-zone debt levels. Socialist Francois HOLLANDE won the May 2012 presidential election,
after advocating pro-growth economic policies, as well as measures such as forcing banks to separate their traditional
deposit taking and lending activities from more speculative businesses, increasing taxes on bank profits, introducing a
new top bracket on income taxes for people earning over ?1 million ($1.3 million) a year, and hiring an additional
60,000 civil servants during his five-year term of office.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select (France)
Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova
Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the
French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France
and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
None reported.
Metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European
French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe
Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe
Ligue des Droits de L'Homme
2011 Human Rights Report: France
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May 25, 2012

France is a multiparty constitutional democracy. The president of the republic is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Nicolas
Sarkozy is the incumbent. The upper house (Senate) of the bicameral parliament is elected indirectly through an electoral college,
while the lower house (National Assembly) is elected directly. Elections for seats in the National Assembly and for the presidency in
2007 and for seats in the Senate in 2011 were considered free and fair. The Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) is the majority
party in parliament. Security forces reported to civilian authorities.

The most significant human rights problem during the year involved government evictions and compulsory repatriations of illegal
immigrants from Romania and Bulgaria, many of whom were Roma. Several attacks against Roma were also reported. Overcrowded
and unhygienic conditions in prisons were compounded by problems in the judicial system, including lengthy pretrial detention and
protracted investigation and trials. French Muslims and others of immigrant origin faced some discrimination, particularly, in the case
of Muslims, as a result of a prohibition against face-covering attire in public institutions.

Other human rights problems reported during the year included antidefamation laws that limited freedom of speech and press, societal
violence against women, anti-Semitic incidents, and trafficking in persons.

The government took steps to prosecute and punish security force and other officials who committed abuses. Impunity was not

Note: The country includes 11 overseas administrative divisions that are covered in this report. Four overseas territories in French
Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Reunion, have the same political status as the 22 metropolitan regions and 101 departments on
the mainland. Five divisions are overseas “collectivities”: French Polynesia, Saint-Barthelemy, Saint-Martin, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon,
and Wallis and Futuna. New Caledonia is a special overseas collectivity with a unique, semiautonomous status between an independent
country and an overseas department. Mayotte became the 101st department on March 31, 2011. Citizens of these territories
periodically elect deputies and senators to represent them in parliament, like the other overseas regions and departments.
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August 27, 2010
Original: French
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
Seventy-seventh session
2-27 August 2010

A. Introduction
2. The Committee welcomes the high quality of detailed and comprehensive report submitted by the State party on time, which was
developed in accordance with the guidelines for reporting. The Committee also appreciated the frank and sincere dialogue that has
been conducted with the delegation and the efforts made by it to provide detailed information to the list of topics to be addressed
(CERD/C/FRA/Q/17- 19) as well as answers to most questions posed by Committee members during the dialogue.
3. The Committee welcomes the committed participation of civil society representatives at the meeting and the commitment of the
latter in the fight against racial discrimination.

B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes the role of the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights both nationally and internationally. He
stressed the importance of the opinion that this committee shall on draft legislation and urges the Government to continue to consult
for this purpose.
5. The Committee welcomes the establishment of legislative tools in the fight against racial discrimination, such as the Law of 5
March 2007 on the right to housing and that of 25 March 2008 on equal opportunities and the creation of state mechanisms to prevent
and combat racial discrimination at the departmental level with the commission for the promotion of equal opportunities and
citizenship (COPEC), and the creation of poles anti-discrimination in public prosecutors.
6. The Committee welcomes the constitutional amendment of July 23, 2008, which allows from 1 March 2010 to any person to seize
the Constitutional Council of the constitutionality of a law on the occasion of a trial. The Committee also welcomes the existence of
the action for constitutionality that can be committed by an a priori group enough parliamentarians on a bill.

C. Specific recommendation related to the implementation of a national plan to fight against racism
9. The Committee notes the information that the State party to prepare a national plan to fight against racism. The Committee hopes
that this national plan will be supported by all authorities and all stakeholders in France. The Committee hopes that the development of
this national plan will enable the State Party to make its policy more coherent and consistent with the Convention and the Declaration
and Programme of Action released. To this end it recommends that the State party take into consideration the following priorities:
a) Narrow population statistics, particularly those relating to persons of immigrant or ethnic groups from under the Convention and
the socio-economic indicators on discrimination in the State Party;
b) Identifying the victims of racial discrimination;
c) Identify the types of racial discrimination and their causes;
d) Identify measures to promote the rise in French society at all levels of people from immigrant or ethnic groups from under the
Convention, their integration, including through the implementation of special measures covered by Articles 1, paragraph 4 and 2,
paragraph 2 of the Convention and confirmed in the General Recommendation No.32 (2009) Committee;
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Political Rights Score: 1
Civil Liberties Score: 1
Status: Free

Control of the Senate was captured by the left in September 2011 elections for the first time since the founding of the Fifth
Republic. Reforms regarding police custody were approved in January to grant suspects the right to remain silent and to have an
attorney present during questioning. France continued to face criticism for a controversial ban on full facial coverings, which came
into effect in April, and restrictions on internet freedom.

The government considered a number of reforms in 2010 to decrease the country’s debt, the most significant of which was an
increase in the retirement age from 60 to 62, which became law in November. The controversial proposals touched off weeks of
protests and strikes throughout the summer and fall.

On September 25, 2011, indirect elections for some half the seats in the Senate gave control to parties on the left for the first time
in the history of France’s Fifth Republic. Jean-Pierre Bel was also elected the country’s first Socialist Senate president on October
1, 2011.

During the year, the government imposed a series of controversial legal measures, such as restrictions on internet freedoms, and a
ban on full facial coverings. However, measures were taken to improve the rights of suspects in police custody.
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France: Not forgotten: Fifth anniversary of Lamine Dieng’s death during arrest
18 June 2012

This past weekend marked the fifth anniversary of Lamine Dieng’s death during his arrest in Paris during the early hours of 17 June
2007. Lamine Dieng, a Frenchman of Senegalese origin, was 25 years old when he died. His family and their supporters organized a
march in his memory on 16 June 2012 in the 20th neighbourhood (arrondisement) of Paris. Five years on, although an investigation is
ongoing, full accountability remains lacking. His family, like others who have sought accountability for deaths in police custody, often
feel shut out of the judicial process. The fifth anniversary of Lamine Dieng’s death is a continuing reminder of the failure to bring law
enforcement officers accused of serious human rights violations to justice, and a testament to the courage and determination of his
family, who like others, despite the many obstacles, continue to pursue truth and justice for those they have lost.

At around 4am on 17 June 2007, three police officers arrived at rue de la Bidassoa in the 20th arrondissement in Paris in response to a
phone call claiming that an altercation was taking place in a hotel on that street. According to the opinion (No. 2007-83) issued by the
National Commission on Police Ethics (Commission nationale de déontologie de la sécurité, CNDS), then the police oversight
mechanism, on Lamine Dieng’s case in April 2008, the three police officers found him barefoot, lying under a car. The police officers
claimed that Lamine Dieng was very agitated and started to climb out from under the car and they tried to restrain him. They said he
resisted and shoved all three of them, and they called for reinforcements. Two other police officers arrived within minutes, followed
later by a further two (a captain and a lieutenant). Lamine Dieng was restrained face down by five police officers, his hands
handcuffed behind his back (his right arm over his shoulder) and a strap placed around his feet. He was then transferred into a police
van where he was placed in the same position. According to the opinion of the CNDS he was restrained by four police officers who
held him down by his shoulders, chest and legs. The captain realized that Lamine Dieng had stopped moving, and then the firemen and
emergency medical services arrived. They tried in vain to resuscitate him, and at 5:15am Lamine Dieng was declared dead.

In its opinion, the CNDS stated unequivocally that the “inadequate restraint” had caused Lamine Dieng’s death. However, to Amnesty
International’s knowledge no disciplinary proceedings have to date been initiated against the police officers who restrained Lamine
Dieng and they are still in office.

Lamine Dieng’s family was not notified of his death until 36 hours after the fact when at 5:30pm on 18 June 2007 his youngest sister
received a phonecall from the internal inspectorate tasked with investigating possible misconduct by law enforcement officials based
in Paris (the Inspection Générale des Services, IGS), while she was alone in the family home. The officer informed her that her
brother had died in an accident. She asked for more information but he replied that she and her family should go to the IGS the
following morning and that they would receive more details then. Lamine Dieng’s father and brother went to the IGS anyway as soon
as they heard the news, but they were told to come back the next day. When Lamine Dieng’s family went to their appointment at the
IGS, they describe how they were told by the police superintendent (Commissaire Principal) that Lamine had been drinking and taking
drugs and that he died naturally from a heart attack in the police van.
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Joint NGO Letter to French President Hollande Regarding the Unannounced visit of King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa of
Bahrain on July 23
July 26, 2012

Dear Mr Hollande,

We are writing to you following your meeting on Monday, July 23 with King Hamad bin Issa Al Khalifa of Bahrain. This visit was
not announced on the Elysée’s website and no official statement was issued by your office after the meeting. Apparently,
journalists were also not aware of this meeting.

We are concerned about the quasi-secret character of this meeting and we wonder if it reflects an intent to avoid commenting on
the deterioration and the gravity of the human rights situation in Bahrain today. We knew King Hamad was preparing to come to
France and that your office was assessing whether to respond positively to his request for a meeting.

This visit could have been a timely opportunity to express publicly as well as to King Hamad directly France's concerns about the
human rights situation in Bahrain. The government of Bahrain, as you are aware, asserts that you had only praise for the
government’s claimed political reforms.

We wonder if the secrecy around this visit signals political embarrassment on your part - embarrassment that may be warranted
given the continuing repression by Bahrain’s ruling family, whose security forces in the past received training and assistance from
France. In this regard, the announcement, relayed by the Bahrain News Agency, according to which bilateral military cooperation
will be consolidated, is of great concern.

The signatory organisations call on your office to issue a statement clarifying France’s stance in the meeting with King Hamad, and
to state clearly that France deplores Bahrain’s failure to date to implement the most important recommendations of the Bahrain
Independent Commission of Inquiry, namely to free those jailed solely for exercising their rights to free expression and peaceful
assembly, and to hold accountable senior officials implicated in torture and other serious human rights violations.

We respectfully hope our message will be taken into consideration.
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5 July 2012
United Nations Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty - Speech delivered by Mr Jean-Hugues Simon-Michel, Ambassador
and French Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament, on behalf of of the French Minister of
Foreign Affairs, Mr Laurent Fabius

Mr President,

The United Nations Diplomatic Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty, a negotiation conference, marks the culmination of long,
intense mobilization.

In 1995, Mr Oscar Arias, Nobel Prize laureate and former President of Costa Rica, launched a vibrant appeal for better regulation of
the arms trade. Ever since, civil society has worked tirelessly for the creation of a legally binding international instrument. In this
respect, I welcome the involvement of all the non-governmental organizations whose action, reflection and commitment have
played a leading role throughout this process. France is proud to be one of the many States which have supported this initiative at
the United Nations General Assembly and which made it possible to adopt the Resolution which decided this conference in 2009.

The European Union has also played its part in this work. In this regard, I naturally align myself with the statement made by the
European Union. We have in Europe an unprecedented common mechanism to control the arms trade. The Union has a special
legitimacy to underline his experience.

This mobilization is unprecedented and our negotiations should lead to a treaty which will be historic in more than one respect:

To begin, this will be the first treaty in the area of arms control adopted by the United Nations in more than 15 years. Together, we
can therefore achieve a great success for the multilateral system as a whole.

This treaty will also be the first global regulation in the only section of globalization which is so far unregulated: the arms trade.
Why could States agree on standards for the majority of international trade’s sectors but not for the arms trade? It is not
impossible. It is urgent and necessary to remedy this gap in global governance. It is essential to create a universal legal standard on
arms transfers, a standard to regulate legal trade, to prevent illegal trafficking and to help improve the conditions of many

This, Mr President, is a fundamental issue. I hope, and I am sure, that the delegations will be guided by this thought throughout
these negotiations.

The instrument we will define here must be a significant contribution to peace and security. It will have to help reduce violence,
consolidate fragile States, contribute to compliance with human rights and international humanitarian law, and bolster the fight
against terrorism and organized crime, and it should finally take into consideration the needs of developement States. Lastly, it will
have to build States’ capacities to develop. For France, these are the political foundations of the future Treaty.
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Trade in conventional arms: CNCDH calls on french diplomacy to continue its efforts towards the adoption of a secure,
coherent and effective international legal framework
July 4th, 2011

The purpose of the negotiations is to propose a binding international legal framework to govern international trade in and transfer
of conventional weapons (in other words weapons other than biological, chemical or nuclear weapons).

As Vice-chair of the Preparatory Committee and permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, France has played a
very active part in drawing up the draft Treaty and must continue to promote among its partner States an ATT that is coherent,
strong and effective.

The creation of this Treaty represents a vital step forward, as it aims to introduce universal regulation of international transfer of
conventional arms for the first time. Under the terms of the Treaty, an international arms transfer would no longer be able to take
place if there was a substantial risk that it would entail serious violations of human rights or international humanitarian law or that it
would seriously impede socioeconomic development in the country of destination.

CNCDH recommends that the French government ensure that the Treaty covers the widest possible range of conventional arms
and related munitions, including equipment used for law enforcement and internal security purposes and that it should apply to all
transfers of conventional arms as well as to the transactions and services needed to carry them out, including intermediary
activities such as those conducted by arms dealers.

CNCDH therefore calls on the government to support the adoption of rigorous transparency measures within the Treaty
framework and in this context to strengthen its own annual report to the French Parliament on its arms exports and support
increased Parliamentary control in this area.
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April 21, 2012
What is Sarkozy the balance sheet?
Another future?

The year 2011 was marked both by the deepening economic crisis, social and ecological, by the revolt of the Arab peoples and the
preparation of core democratic maturity in France. To meet these challenges, the League of Human Rights, in the logic of the deal
for rights and citizenship that it has signed with forty-nine other membership organizations and trade unions, think it's time to bring
in side of his "indignation" and his criticism of regressions rights, proposals to build a different future together. Not a program for
political alternation, but the slopes for alternatives to the stakes.

LDH says here the need to re-legitimize the policy as the founder of democracy to take seriously the effectiveness of social rights
and to reinvest in public service; era of change facing an environmental emergency; to end the politics of fear and suspicion, to
make justice independent of politics and put the police in the service of citizens' rights, to refuse the logic of discrimination, racism
and xenophobia to select a shared future, both in France the new world is born, by acting firmly to the universality of rights.

Citizens want to have this new deal. Civil society in its diversity, brings energy, ideas, possible. It seeks to express, to say the
words change, she wants to be heard. This book has no other ambition than to debate these ambitions and expectations, and the
new social contract guaranteeing the effectiveness of rights for a "different future".
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None reported.