Islamic Republic of Iran
Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
Joined United Nations:  24 October 1945
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 30 November 2012
78,868,711 (July 2012 est.)
Mohammad Reza Rahimi
First Vice President since 13 September 2009
Supreme Leader appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts;
Assembly of Experts elected by popular vote for an eight-year term;
last election held 15 December 2006

Next scheduled election: None
President elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible
for a second term and third nonconsecutive term); last held 17
June 2005 with a two-candidate runoff on 12 June 2009

Next scheduled election:  June 2013
Persian 61%, Azeri 16%, Kurd 10%, Lur 6%, Baloch 2%, Arab 2%, Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%, other 1%
Muslim 98% (Shi'a 89%, Sunni 9%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i) 2%
Theocratic republic with 30 provinces (ostanha, singular - ostan); Legal system is based on Shari'a law system; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Executive:  Supreme Leader appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; Assembly of Experts elected by popular vote for an
eight-year term; last election held 15 December 2006 concurrently with municipal elections; president elected by popular vote for a
four-year term (eligible for a second term and third nonconsecutive term);
last held 112 June 2009;(next presidential election slated
for June 2013)
Legislative: Unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly or Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami or Majles (290 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 2 March 2012 (first round); second round held on 4 May 2012; (next election to be held in 2016)
Judicial: The Supreme Court and the four-member High Council of the Judiciary have a single head and overlapping
responsibilities; together they supervise the enforcement of all laws and establish judicial and legal policies; lower courts include a
special clerical court, a revolutionary court, and a special administrative court
Persian (official) 53%, Azeri Turkic and Turkic dialects 18%, Kurdish 10%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 7%, Luri 6%, Balochi 2%,
Arabic 2%, other 2%
There are records of numerous ancient civilizations on the Iranian plateau before the arrival of Aryan tribes from the north, many of
whom are still unknown to historians today. Archeological findings place knowledge of Iranian prehistory at Lower Paleolithic times
(800,000 years ago). 7000 year old jars of wine excavated in the Zagros Mountains (now on display at The University of
Pennsylvania) and ruins of 7000 year old settlements such as Sialk are further testament to this. Many dynasties have ruled Persia
throughout the ages. Scholars and archeologists are only beginning to discover the scope of the independent, non-Semitic Elamite
Empire and Jiroft civilizations 5000 years ago. The modern nation of Iran was historically known to the West as Persia until March
21, 1935. The name was used in the West due to the ancient Greek name for Iran, Persis. The first true empire of global
proportions of Persia blossomed under the Achaemenids in (559 - 330 BC). The dynasty was founded by Cyrus the Great, who
merged the various tribes and kingdoms into one unified entity. Following the Hellenistic period (300 - 250 BC) came the Parthian
(250 BC - AD 226 ) and the Sassanid (226 - 651) dynasties. Before the Islamic conquest of Persia, Zoroastrianism was the state
religion of the Sassanian Empire of Persia (224-651 AD) and played an important role in the earlier Median, Achaemenian and
Parthian dynasties. The Iranian Prophet Zoroaster is considered by numerous scholars as the founder of the earliest religion based
on revealed scripture. The first Shah of the Sassanian Empire, Ardashir I, started reforming the country both economically and
militarily. The empire's territory encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of
Syria, Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia and Arabia. During Khosrau II's rule in 590-628, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon
were also annexed to the Empire. The Sassanians called their empire Erânshahr (or Iranshahr, "Dominion of the Aryans", i.e. of
Iranians). Muslims invaded Iran in the time of Umar (637 CE) and conquered it after several great battles. Yazdegerd III fled from
one district to another until a local miller killed him for his purse at Merv in 651. By 674, Muslims had conquered Greater Khorasan
(which included modern Iranian Khorasan province and modern Afghanistan, Transoxania, and Pakistan). The Islamic conquest of
Persia led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. After the fall of Sasanian
dynasty in 651, the Umayyad Arabs adopted many of the Persian customs especially the administrative and the court mannerisms.
The Abbasid army consisted primarily of Khorasanians and was led by an Iranian general, Abu Muslim Khorasani. It contained
both Iranian and Arab elements, and the Abbasids enjoyed both Iranian and Arab support. The Abbasids, who overthrew the
Umayyads in 750CE. Islamization was a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population of Iran.
Although Persians adopted the religion of their conquerers, over the centuries they worked to protect and revive their distinctive
language and culture, a process known as Persianization. In 962 a Turkish slave governor of the Samanids, Alptigin, conquered
Ghazna (in present-day Afghanistan) and established a dynasty, the Ghaznavids, that lasted to 1186. The Khwarezmid Empire only
lasted for a few decades, until the arrival of the Mongols. Genghis Khan had unified the Mongols, and under him the Mongol Empire
quickly expanded in several directions, until by 1218 it bordered Khwarezm. The Islamization of Iran was to yield deep
transformations within the cultural, scientific, and political structure of Iran's society: The blossoming of Persian literature,
philosophy, medicine and art became major elements of the newly-forming Muslim civilization. Sunnism was dominant form of Islam
in most part of Iran from the beginning until rise of Safavids empire. The domination of Sunnis doesn't mean Shia was rootless in
Iran. The writers of The Four Books of Shia were Iranian as well as many other great Shia scholars. The Safiviyeh came to be led
by a fifteen-year old Ismail I. To establish political legitimacy, the Safavid rulers claimed to be descended from Imam Ali and his
wife Fatima (the daughter of Prophet Muhammad) through the seventh Imam Musa al-Kazim. A faltering Safavid court eventually
gave way to the conqueror Nadir Shah who restored order and implemented policies for safekeeping the territorial integrity of Iran.
By the 17th century, European countries, including Great Britain, Imperial Russia, and France, had already started establishing
colonial footholds in the region. A new era in the History of Persia dawned with the Constitutional Revolution of Iran against the
Shah in the late 19th and early 20th century. The Shah managed to remain in power, granting a limited constitution in 1906 (making
the country a constitutional monarchy). The first Majlis (parliament) was convened on October 7, 1906. The discovery of oil in
1908 by the British in Khuzestan spawned intense renewed interest in Persia by the British Empire. Control of Persia remained
contested between the United Kingdom and Russia, in what became known as The Great Game, and codified in the Anglo-Russian
Convention of 1907, which divided Persia into spheres of influence, regardless of her national sovereignty. Finally, the
Constitutionalist movement of Gilan and the central power vacuum caused by the instability of the Qajar government resulted in the
rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi and the Pahlavi dynasty in 1921. During World War I the country was occupied by British and Russian
forces but was essentially neutral. In 1919, Britain attempted to establish a protectorate in Iran, aided by the Soviet Union's
withdrawal in 1921. During World War II, Iran was a vital oil-supply source and link in the Allied supply line for lend-lease supplies
to the Soviet Union. The then-Shah's tacit pro-German sympathies led to British and Indian forces from Iraq and Soviet forces from
the north occupying Iran in August 1941. In September, the British forced Reza to abdicate in favour of his pro-British son
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who ruled until 1979. In 1951 Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq received the vote required
from the parliament to nationalize the British-owned oil industry, in a situation known as the Abadan Crisis. In return for the US
support the Shah agreed, in 1954, to allow an international consortium of British (40% of shares), American (40%), French (6%),
and Dutch (14%) companies to run the Iranian oil facilities for the next 25 years. The Iranian Revolution also known as the Islamic
Revolution was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic
under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic Its time span can be said to
have begun in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations, and concluded with the approval of the new theocratic Constitution
— whereby Ayatollah Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country — in December 1979. Supported by the Mujaheddin-e-
Khalq, militant Iranian students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979, holding 52 embassy employees hostage
for a 444 days. On September 22, 1980 Iraq invaded Iran. Following Khomeini's death on June 3, 1989, the Assembly of Experts
— an elected body of senior clerics — chose the outgoing president of the republic, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, to be his successor as
national religious leader in what proved to be a smooth transition. In June 2003, anti-government protests by several thousand
students took place in Tehran. Several human rights protests also occurred in 2006. The ultraconservative mayor of Tehran,
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was elected president in 2005 in an election that saw the disqualification of over 1,000 candidates by the
Guardian Council. During 2005 and 2006, there were claims that the United States and Israel were planning to attack Iran,
including the threat of attack with nuclear weapons by the United States, for many different claimed reasons, including Iran's civilian
nuclear energy program which the United States and some other states fear could lead to a nuclear weapons program, crude oil and
other strategic reasons (including the Iranian Oil Bourse), electoral reasons in the USA and in Iran. P.R. China and Russia oppose
military action of any sort and oppose economic sanctions. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a fatwa forbidding the production,
stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. The fatwa was cited in an official statement by the Iranian government at an August 2005
meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna.
In 2009 Ahmadinejad's reelection was hotly disputed and
marred by large protests that formed the "greatest domestic challenge" to the leadership of the Islamic Republic "in 30 years".
Reformist opponent Mir-Hossein Mousavi and his supporters alleged voting irregularities and by 1 July 2009, 1000 people had
been arrested and 20 killed in street demonstrations. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and other Islamic officials blamed foreign
powers for fomenting the protest.

Source: Wikipedia: History of Iran
Iran's economy is marked by statist policies and an inefficient state sector, which create major distortions throughout the system,
and reliance on oil, which provides the majority of government revenues. Price controls, subsidies, and other rigidities weigh down
the economy, undermining the potential for private-sector-led growth. Private sector activity is typically limited to small-scale
workshops, farming, and services. Significant informal market activity flourishes and corruption is widespread. Tehran since the
early 1990s has recognized the need to reduce these inefficiencies, and in December 2010 the legislature passed President Mahmud
AHMADI-NEJAD's Targeted Subsidies Law (TSL) to reduce state subsidies on food and energy. This was the most extensive
economic reform since the government implemented gasoline rationing in 2007. Over a five-year period the bill will phase out
subsidies that previously cost Tehran $60-$100 billion annually and mostly benefited Iran's upper and middle classes. Cash payouts
of $45 per person to more than 90% of Iranian households mitigated initial widespread resistance to the TSL program, though
popular acceptance remains vulnerable to rising inflation. A rise in world oil prices in 2011 increased Iran's oil export revenue by
roughly $28 billion over 2010, easing some of the financial impact of international sanctions. However, expansionary fiscal and
monetary policies, government mismanagement, the sanctions, and a depreciating currency are fueling inflation, and GDP growth
remains stagnant. Iran also continues to suffer from double-digit unemployment and underemployment. Underemployment among
Iran's educated youth has convinced many to seek jobs overseas, resulting in a significant "brain drain."
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Iran)
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three
challengers. The next morning the Islamic Republic News Agency, Iran's official news agency, announced that with two-thirds of the
votes counted, Ahmadinejad had won the election with 63% of the votes cast, and that Mir-Hossein Mousavi had received 33% of
the votes cast. The European Union, United Kingdom and several western countries expressed concern over alleged irregularities
during the vote, and many analysts and journalists from the United States, Europe and other western based media voiced doubts
about the authenticity of the results. Meanwhile many OIC member states, as well as Russia, China, India, and Brazil, have
congratulated Ahmadinejad on his victory.

Mousavi issued a statement saying, "I'm warning that I won't surrender to this charade," and urged his supporters to fight the
decision, without committing acts of violence. Protests, in favour of Mousavi and against the alleged fraud, broke out in Tehran.
Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei urged the nation to unite behind Ahmadinejad, labeling his victory as a "divine
assessment". Mousavi lodged an official appeal against the result to the Guardian Council on 14 June. On 15 June, Khamenei
announced there would be an investigation into vote-rigging claims, which would take seven to ten days. On 16 June, the Guardian
Council announced it will recount the votes. However, Mousavi stated that 14 million unused ballots were missing, giving a chance
to manipulate the results. On 29 June, Iran's electoral board completed the partial recount, and concluded that Ahmadinejad won
the election, amidst protest from the opposition.

The President of Iran is the highest official elected by direct popular vote, but does not control foreign policy or the armed forces.
Candidates have to be vetted by the Guardian Council, a twelve member body consisting of six clerics (selected by Iran's Supreme
Leader) and six lawyers (proposed by the head of Iran's judicial system and voted in by the Parliament).

The inauguration of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was held on 5 August in Tehran amid protests held outside the Parliament.
Source: Wikipedia: Iran Presidential Elections 2009
Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary
with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb
Islands and Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Iran; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation
treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have
discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
Refugees (country of origin): 1,027,577 (Afghanistan); 3,511 (Iraq) (2012)
Despite substantial interdiction efforts and considerable control measures along the border with Afghanistan, Iran remains one of
the primary transshipment routes for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe; suffers one of the highest opiate addiction rates in the
world, and has an increasing problem with synthetic drugs; lacks anti-money laundering laws; has reached out to neighboring
countries to share counter-drug intelligence
Iran Human Rights
Documentation Center
2011 Human Rights Report: Iran*
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
11 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
25, 2012

The Islamic Republic of Iran, with a population of approximately 77 million, is a constitutional, theocratic republic in which Shia Muslim
clergy, and political leaders vetted by the clergy, dominate the key power structures. Government legitimacy is based on the twin pillars
of popular sovereignty--albeit restricted--and the rule of the supreme leader of the Islamic Revolution. The current supreme leader,
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was not directly elected but chosen by a directly elected body of religious leaders, the Assembly of Experts, in
1989. Khamenei's writ dominates the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. He directly controls the armed forces
and indirectly controls internal security forces, the judiciary, and other key institutions. The legislative branch is the popularly elected
290-seat Islamic Consultative Assembly, or Majles. The unelected 12-member Guardian Council reviews all legislation the Majles passes
to ensure adherence to Islamic and constitutional principles; it also screens presidential and Majles candidates for eligibility. Mahmoud
Ahmadi-Nejad, a member of the Alliance of Builders political party, was reelected president in June 2009 in a multiparty election that was
generally considered neither free nor fair. There were numerous instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently
of civilian control.

The government severely limited citizens' right to peacefully change their government through free and fair elections, and it continued a
campaign of postelection violence and intimidation. The government committed extrajudicial killings and executed persons for criminal
convictions as juveniles and through unfair trials, sometimes in group executions. Security forces under the government's control
committed acts of politically motivated violence and repression, including torture, beatings, and rape. The government administered
severe officially sanctioned punishments, including amputation and flogging. Vigilante groups with ties to the government, such as Basij
militia, also committed acts of violence. Prison conditions remained poor. Security forces arbitrarily arrested and detained individuals,
often holding them incommunicado. Authorities held political prisoners and continued to crack down on women's rights activists, ethnic
minority rights activists, student activists, and religious minorities. There was little judicial independence and few fair public trials. The
government severely restricted the right to privacy and civil liberties including freedoms of speech and the press, assembly, association,
and movement; it placed severe restrictions on freedom of religion. Authorities denied admission to or expelled hundreds of university
students and professors whose views were deemed unacceptable by the regime. Official corruption and a lack of government
transparency persisted. Violence and legal and societal discrimination against women, children, ethnic and religious minorities, and
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons were extant. Trafficking in persons and incitement to anti-Semitism remained problems.
The government severely restricted workers' rights and arrested numerous union leaders. Child labor remained a serious problem.
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Human Rights Committee
103rd session
Geneva, 17 October – 4 November 2011
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 40 of the Covenant                

Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee
Islamic Republic of Iran

A.        Introduction
2.        The Committee welcomes the third periodic report of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the information presented therein. It
expresses appreciation for the opportunity to renew its constructive dialogue with the State party’s delegation on the measures that the
State party has taken during the reporting period to implement the provisions of the Covenant. The Committee is grateful to the State
party for its written replies (CCPR/C/IRN/Q/3/Add.1) to the list of issues (CCPR/C/IRN/Q/3) which were supplemented by the oral
responses provided by the delegation.
3.        The Committee notes with regret, however, the 18-year period between the consideration of the second and third periodic
reports and hopes that the constructive engagement by the State party with the Committee at its 103rd session will be continued through
effective  implementation of the current recommendations and timely submission of its fourth periodic report.

B.        Positive aspects
4.        The Committee welcomes:
(a)        the signing of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed
conflict in September 2010;
(b)        the accession to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in October 2009;
(c)        the accession to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution
and Child Pornography in September 2007;
(d)        the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in July 1994

C.        Principal matters of concern and recommendations
5.        The Committee notes with concern that reference is made in the State party’s system to certain religious tenets as primary norms.
The State party should ensure that all the obligations of the Covenant are fully respected and that the provisions of its internal norms are
not invoked as justification for its failure to fulfil its obligations under the Covenant.
6.        The Committee is concerned that the status of international human rights treaties in domestic law is not specified in the legal
system, which hinders the full implementation of the rights contained in the Covenant.
The State party should ensure effective implementation and application of Covenant provisions, irrespective of the place of the Covenant
in the domestic legal system.   

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Sanctions Will Hold Rights Abusers in Iran Accountable
Nov 9 2012 - 5:12pm

Freedom House applauds the Obama Administration for authorizing new sanctions against nine individuals and organizations in Iran
accused of human rights abuses, including censorship and blocking of citizen internet access. The sanctions, announced by the U.S.
Treasury Department on November 8, are a positive step by the administration to hold the Iranian regime accountable for its abysmal
human rights record.

“While existing sanctions may be an effective tool in discouraging Iran’s nuclear ambitions and holding it accountable for its involvement
in terrorism, they largely fail to address the regime’s horrific human rights abuses,” said Charles Dunne, director for Middle East and
North Africa programs at Freedom House. “The human rights situation in Iran is, in effect, a humanitarian catastrophe and warrants
serious attention completely apart from the nuclear issue.”

Freedom House urges the U.S. government to expand these sanctions to cover a much broader array of Iranian abuses and the officials
and institutions responsible for them.

Iran is one of the world’s worst human rights violators. The country is only surpassed by China in its number of executions, many of
those occurring in secret and after trials that do not meet internationally accepted standards of due process. Hundreds of journalists and
political dissidents are imprisoned without fair trials and have been denied access to legal counsel. The government has been responsible
for the beating, torture, and rape of detainees. It deploys sophisticated tools to cut off and monitor access to the internet, exporting its
know-how to countries such as Syria, and persecutes religious minorities including the Baha’i population, who continue to face arbitrary
detention and socio-economic pressure for their beliefs. Discrimination against women is widespread, including the banning of female
students at 70 universities.

While sanctions were previously authorized by the United States against Iran’s terrorist activities and nuclear program, and the
government blacklisted eight officials in 2010 for committing rights violations during the 2009 protests, the new sanctions announced
yesterday are a significant extension of their reach. The EU and the UN also have human rights sanctions against Iran.

Iran is rated Not Free in Freedom of the World 2012, Freedom House’s annual survey of fundamental freedoms, Freedom of the Press
2012 and Freedom on the Net 2012.
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Iran must ensure an effective investigation into Sattar Beheshti’s death in custody
29 November 2012

Amnesty International is calling on the Iranian authorities to act decisively to end the continuing confusion surrounding the cause of the
death in custody of blogger, Sattar Beheshti
and to establish the truth of what happened.

The Supreme Leader must ensure that a thorough and impartial investigation is carried out into this and all other deaths in custody. These
should be conducted in a manner that
complies with international standards for such investigations.

Given Iran’s track record of failing to investigate deaths in custody, its long history of impunity for those widely believed to be
responsible for abuses, and the conflicting announcements
from different officials, Amnesty International fears that the ‘investigation’
carried out by
judicial officials into Sattar Beheshti’s death is nothing but a whitewash aimed at hiding the truth about what happened to
him in detention, leaving his family unable to obtain justice and

Amnesty International urges the Iranian authorities to request the assistance of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in
Iran in the establishment of a transparent and
impartial mechanism that facilitates thorough investigations into events such as deaths in
custody and other miscarriages of justice.

Sattar Beheshti, 35, was arrested by Iran’s Cyber Police on 30 October 2012 at his home in Robat Karim, southwest of Tehran. It
appears that the men who arrested him did not have an
arrest warrant and did not give a reason for the arrest. Sattar Beheshti’s family
had no further
contact with him and their attempts to find out his whereabouts were dismissed by the authorities until 6 November when
they received a telephone call telling them to collect his
body from Tehran’s Kahrizak detention centre.

On 10 November, 41 political prisoners held in Section 350 of Evin Prison, including prisoners of conscience Mohammad Ali Dadkhah
and Abdolfattah Soltani, both human rights
lawyers, wrote an open letter in which they testified that Sattar Beheshti was detained at
Evin’s Section 350 from 31 October to 1 November. The letter stated that they had witnessed
injuries on his body including his face and
head, his wrists and arms, and that he had bruises
on his neck, stomach, and his back. The letter also said that Sattar Beheshti told eye
witnesses in Evin Prison that, since his arrest, he had been tortured and ill-treated. He said he
was beaten while his hands and feet were
tied to a chair and severely beaten while suspended
by his wrists from the ceiling – one of the forms of a longstanding method of torture
qapani. He added that his interrogators, wearing army boots, had kicked him on his neck and head while he was on the floor.
According to the letter, while Sattar Beheshti was in Evin
Prison, he lodged a complaint against his interrogators, in which he complained
that he had
been tortured since his arrest.
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Iran: Stop Dissident’s Execution
Gholamreza Khosravi Savadjani May Face Imminent Death
September 8, 2012

(Beirut) – Iranian authorities should immediately suspend any planned execution of Gholamreza Khosravi Savadjani and rescind his death
sentence, Human Rights Watch said today. Savadjani, convicted of helping the dissident Mojahedin-e Khalq group, may be at imminent
risk of execution. He is in Tehran’s Evin prison in Ward 350, where many political prisoners are usually held.

“Iran is one of the world’s leading abusers of the death penalty and commonly applies the penalty to political dissidents like Savadjani,”
said Eric Goldstein, deputy Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. “Savadjani’s life hangs in the balance even though the
authorities never asserted that he used violence against the state.”

Unconfirmed reports suggest authorities may execute Savadjani, 50, as early as September 10, 2012. A revolutionary court in Tehran
sentenced Savadjani to death for the crime of moharebeh, or “enmity against God” in 2010 for cooperating with a television station
abroad that is affiliated with Mojahedin-e Khalq, which the Iranian authorities consider to be a terrorist organization. Iran’s Supreme
Court confirmed Savadjani’s death sentence on April 21.

Several informed sources provided information on the case against Savadjani to Human Rights Watch that raises serious due process and
fair trial concerns. Authorities initially arrested him in 2008 and prosecutors charged him with espionage for his alleged transmission of
information, photos, and possibly financial assistance to Simay-e Azadi, a London-based television station run by Mojahedin-e Khalq. A
revolutionary court in the central city of Rafsanjan convicted Savadjani of espionage and sentenced him to six years in prison.

In July 2011, well into Savadjani’s prison term, the judiciary transferred the file to Branch 26 of the revolutionary court in Tehran,
headed by Judge Pirabbasi. The sources told Human Rights Watch that an appeals court in Tehran ordered Branch 26 to change the
charges against Savadjani and instead try him under the crime of moharebeh, over objections by Savadjani’s lawyers that a new trial
constituted “double jeopardy” under Iran’s criminal procedure code.

In 2010, the lower court convicted Savadjani of moharebeh and sentenced him to death.

Under articles 186 and 190-91 of Iran’s penal code, anyone found responsible for taking up arms against the state, or belonging to an
organization taking up arms against the government, may be convicted of moharebeh and sentenced to death.

The case against Savadjani raises serious due process concerns under the International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights, which Iran
has ratified. Article 14(7) of the covenant states that, “No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he
has already been finally convicted.” According to the United Nations Human Rights Committee, which monitors compliance with the
covenant, “In cases of trials leading to the imposition of the death penalty scrupulous respect of the guarantees of fair trial is particularly
important. The imposition of a death sentence upon conclusion of a trial in which the provisions of article 14 of the covenant have not
been respected constitutes a violation of the right to life.”
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President in 5th International Bali Democracy Forum:
Democracy the only way to administration of justice
President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad described Thursday democracy as the latest human achievement that can be directed to
administration of justice throughout the world.
Thursday 08 November 2012

President Ahmadinejad made the remarks addressing the fifth annual Bali Democracy Forum underway in Indonesia.

President said that democracy will be established only through global commitment to justice and freedom, saying it will never comes out
of guns.

In a real democratic government, he said, the governors should move towards justice and freedom.

He then referred to occupation of Palestinian lands and said it is the obvious example of colonialism and blatant violation of human rights.

Massacre of innocent people in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as broad suppression of freedom and legitimate rights of nations
along with terrorism and establishment of military and intelligence bases of big powers aimed at imposing backwardness on other nations
is among other examples of colonial approaches and violation of rights of nations, the President reiterated.

Condemning production and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear bombs, he said such moves that threaten lives
of world nations are other examples of human rights violations.

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has criticized the electoral systems in the United States and Europe, saying elections have turned into a
battleground for the capitalists.

“Elections, which are a major manifestation of the people’s will, have turned into the scene for the propaganda campaign of the
capitalists and huge expenses and many independent, decent and efficient figures do not get the chance to participate in [their countries’]
ruling,” said Dr.Ahmadinejad .

He added that there is a “wide gap” between the slogans and the attitudes of Western officials before and after the election.

President Ahmadinejad emphasized that campaign expenses have made the ruling governments in the US and certain European countries
show commitment to special groups, preventing them from addressing public demands.

He said most of the world’s nations are unhappy with the ongoing global situation, adding the “slogan of change” can win a lot of votes
in every part of the world due to growing popular dissatisfaction.

He questioned democracy in the US and Europe, saying the majority of the people cannot play a determining role in basic decisions.

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Monday 09/06/
To avoid violating the rights of a necessary national measures to combat corruption agencies eco

Pourmohammadi heads the second meeting of anti-corruption agencies and institutions in Tajikistan said Mbvdzmany ECO countries: the
prevention of corruption and rights abuses against the people of The most important steps that must be committed to do. He added that
the oppressed people of Palestine and Gaza Shahdym Unfortunately, today most conflicts, corruption and fake Israeli regime have been

Speaking at the second meeting Hojjatoleslam Mehdi Pourmohammadi heads of anti-corruption agencies and institutions Mbvdzmany
ECO countries said the first regional body to combat corruption and to address claims that both the presence of anti-corruption agencies
and institutions Mbvdzmany ECO countries in the international community is formed.

Head of the Inspectorate General of Iran's readiness to provide services and activities of the specialized anti-corruption public complaints
and said the member countries, anti-corruption holding of the second Meeting of the Heads
Mbvdzmany institutions and eco represents
the interest of member states to fight corruption
Mbvdzmany activity is deep and widespread.

Pourmohammadi pointed out: ECO members, using the map as comprehensive convention against corruption for national activities and
look forward to using these activities and the experiences of the regional and international levels to share with other members .
He said the Inspector General of Iran and other anti-corruption agencies in the ECO Regional Center for Convention implementation
strategies, criteria and successful models will be discussed.

Head of State General Inspectorate said: The center of culture and knowledge sought to combat corruption and complaints procedures
and empower people to create and also to increase regional cooperation and international members. States Parties with The peer review
mechanism to identify successes, challenges, and technical requirements to enable the implementation of this Convention are invited. The
draft of the constitution states that all States Members of the United Nations Convention to combat corruption.

Pour-Mohammadi said there is no doubt sustainable regional cooperation in the fight against corruption and the lack of unity and
empathy are not available in every state and union associations of each of the region would harm. Therefore, the need for cooperation
between countries in terms of specific mechanisms in the fight against corruption is inevitable.

At the head of the Inspector General stated: to prevent and combat corruption and violating the rights of nations is one of the most
essential steps that need to be committed to. Unfortunately today the oppressed people of Palestine and Gaza Shahdym most conflicts,
corruption and fake Israeli regime have been great. Safety, health and the severity of their interests are at stake. The source of this
corruption, dictatorship and oppression. In general, the international community and in particular the ECO region, we must defend the
rights of the poor and allowing corruption founders happen to corrupt the motivation to continue.
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NGOs Call on UN Member States to Support UNGA Resolution Addressing Human Rights Abuses in Iran
November 21, 2012

Your Excellency:

We, the undersigned human rights organizations and press freedom groups, write to respectfully urge your government to vote in favor
of the resolution on the promotion and protection of human rights of the Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs Committee of the 67th
session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), scheduled to take place on November 27, 2012. This 67th UNGA provides an
important opportunity to advance the concerns of the international community with respect to ongoing human rights abuses in the
Islamic Republic of Iran.

In recent years, the Islamic Republic of Iran has increasingly and systematically repressed its population and committed widespread
abuses with impunity. Earlier this month, Iranian officials were suspected of torturing to death a blogger, Sattar Beheshti, simply for his
criticisms of the government on Facebook—a disturbing, but not isolated, case which highlights the plight of hundreds of political
prisoners in Iran, as well as the broader status of human rights and freedom in the country.

Last month, Dr. Ahmed Shaheed, the UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran, reported a “deeply troubling
picture” of overall conditions inside the country and detailed the ill-treatment of  activists, journalists, human rights defenders, political
opposition, students, women, and ethnic and religious minorities—many of whom face threats, arbitrary detention, torture, sexual abuse,
and even death for exercising their fundamental rights as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international
laws and standards, which Iran has agreed to uphold.  Despite repeated requests, Iranian authorities have refused access to the country
for any UN human rights mechanism for the past seven years, and have systematically worked to decimate the work of independent civil
society and human rights defenders in the country.

Until the Islamic Republic of Iran stops its repressive practices against its people and begins cooperation and compliance with its
international human rights obligations, the international community has an obligation to stand up for the Iranian people and hold their
government to account for its widespread transgressions. To that end, this proposed resolution is an important mechanism for the
international community to stand with one voice in support of the Iranian people’s basic human rights.  The resolution crucially details
the vast violations by the Iranian authorities, including those that are widespread and/or systematic in nature, as well as strongly urges
the government to undertake the necessary reforms to carry out free and fair presidential elections in June 2013.

We urge your support for this resolution, and we further request that your government reject any motion for no-action on this measure
that would prevent consideration of the resolution on its merits. On November 27, and with your government’s support, the UN General
Assembly will send a strong signal to Iranian Government authorities to put an end to their abusive practices.
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Ali Hoseini-Khamenei
Supreme Leader since 4 June 1989
Mahmud Ahmadinejad
President since 3 August 2005
Current situation: Iran is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of
sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude; Iranian women are trafficked internally for the purpose of forced prostitution and for
forced marriages to settle debts; Iranian and Afghan children living in Iran are trafficked internally for the purpose of forced
marriages, commercial sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude as beggars or laborers to pay debts, provide income or support
drug addiction of their families; press reports indicate that criminal organizations play a significant role in human trafficking to and
from Iran, in connection with smuggling of migrants, drugs, and arms

Tier rating: Tier 3 - Iran did not provide evidence of law enforcement activities against trafficking, and credible reports indicate
that Iranian authorities' response is not sufficient to penalize offenders, protect victims, and eliminate trafficking; some aspects of
Iranian law and policy hinder efforts to combat trafficking including punishment of victims and legal obstacles to punishing offenders;
Iran has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2009)