KAZAKHSTAN
Republic of Kazakhstan
Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Joined United Nations:  2 March 1992
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 15 November 2012
CAPITAL
POPULATION
CHIEF OF STATE
SELECTION PROCESS
Astana
17,522,010 (July 2012 est.)
Yerbol Orynbayev
Deputy Prime Minister since 29 October 2007
President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term
limits); election last held 3 April 2011

Next scheduled election: 2016
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
SELECTION PROCESS
Prime Minister and First Deputy Prime Minister appointed by
the president
; election last held on 3 April 2011

Next scheduled election:  2016
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
ETHNIC GROUPS
Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.4%, Russian 30%, Ukrainian 3.7%, Uzbek 2.5%, German 2.4%, Tatar 1.7%, Uygur 1.4%, other 4.9%
(1999 census)
RELIGIONS
Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%
GOVERNMENT
STRUCTURE
Republic with authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch with 14 provinces (oblystar, singular -
oblys) and 3 cities (qala, singular - qalasy); Legal system is based on Islamic law and Roman law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
Executive: President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 3 April 2011 (next to be held
in 2016); Prime Minister and First Deputy Prime Minister appointed by the president
;  note: constitutional amendments of February
2011 moved election date from 2012 to April 2011 but kept five-year term; subsequent election to take place in 2016

Legislative: Bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 7 members are appointed by the president; other members are
elected by local assemblies; to serve six-year terms) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 9 out of the 107 Mazhilis members are elected
from the Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, which represents the country's ethnic minorities; members are popularly elected to
serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - (indirect) last held in August 2011 (next to be held in 2014); Mazhilis - last held on 15 January 2012 (next to be
held in 2017)
Judicial: Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)
LANGUAGES
Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic
communication") 95% (2001 est.)
BRIEF HISTORY
Humans have inhabited present-day Kazakhstan since the earliest Stone Age, generally pursuing the nomadic pastoralism for which
the region's climate and terrain are best suited. Prehistoric Bronze Age cultures that extended onto Kazakh territory include the
Srubna culture, the Afanasevo culture and the Andronovo culture. The earliest well-documented state in the region was the Turkic
Kaganate, or Gokturk, Köktürk state, established by the Ashina clan, which came into existence in the 6th century AD. The
Qarluqs, a confederation of Turkic tribes, established a state in what is now eastern Kazakhstan in 766. In the 8th and 9th centuries,
portions of southern Kazakhstan were conquered by Arabs, who also introduced Islam. The Oghuz Turks controlled western
Kazakhstan from the 9th through the 11th centuries; the Kimak and Kipchak peoples, also of Turkic origin, controlled the east at
roughly the same time. The large central desert of Kazakhstan is still called Dashti-Kipchak, or the Kipchak Steppe. In the late 9h
century, the Qarluq state was destroyed by invaders who established the large Qarakhanid state, which occupied a region known as
Transoxiana, the area north and east of the Oxus River (the present-day Amu Darya), extending into what is now China. Beginning
in the early 11th century, the Qarakhanids fought constantly among themselves and with the Seljuk Turks to the south. In the course
of these conflicts, parts of present-day Kazakhstan shifted back and forth between the combatants. The Qarakhanids, who
accepted Islam and the authority of the Arab Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad during their dominant period, were conquered in the
1130s by the Karakitai, a Mongol confederation from eastern Mongolia. In the mid-12th century, an independent state of Khorazm
along the Oxus River broke away from the weakening Karakitai, but the bulk of the Karakitai state lasted until the Mongol invasion
of Genghis Khan in 1219-1221. After the Mongol capture of the Karakitai state, Kazakhstan fell under the control of a succession
of rulers of the Mongolian Golden Horde, the western branch of the Mongol Empire. (The horde, or zhuz, is the precursor of the
present-day clan. By the early 15th century, the ruling structure had split into several large groups known as khanates, including the
Nogai Horde and the Uzbek Khanate. Kazakh Khanate was founded in 1456 on the banks of Zhetisu (seven rivers) in the south
eastern part of present Republic of Kazakhstan by Janybek Khan and Kerei Khan. During the reign of Kasym Khan (1511-1523),
the Kazakh Khanate expanded considerably. Kasym Khan instituted the first Kazakh code of laws in 1520, called "Qasym
Khannyn Qasqa Zholy" (Bright Road of Kasym Khan). Kazakh Khanate is described in historical texts such as the Tarikh-i-Rashidi
(1541-1545) by Muhammad Haidar Dughlat, and Zhamigi-at-Tavarikh (1598-1599) by Kadyrgali Kosynuli Zhalayir. Russian
traders and soldiers began to appear on the northwestern edge of Kazakh territory in the 17th century, when Cossacks established
the forts that later became the cities of Oral (Ural'sk) and Atyrau (Gur'yev). Russians were able to seize Kazakh territory because
the khanates were preoccupied by Kalmyks (Oirats, Dzungars), who in the late 16th century had begun to move into Kazakh
territory from the east. Forced westward in what they call their Great Retreat, the Kazakhs were increasingly caught between the
Kalmyks and the Russians. Two of Kazakh Hordes were depend of Oirat Huntaiji. In 1730 Abul Khayr, one of the khans of the
Lesser Horde, sought Russian assistance. Although Abul Khayr's intent had been to form a temporary alliance against the stronger
Kalmyks, the Russians gained permanent control of the Lesser Horde as a result of his decision. The Russians conquered the
Middle Horde by 1798, but the Great Horde managed to remain independent until the 1820s, when the expanding Kokand
Khanate to the south forced the Great Horde khans to choose Russian protection, which seemed to them the lesser of two evils. In
1863, Russian Empire elaborated a new imperial policy, announced in the Gorchakov Circular, asserting the right to annex
"troublesome" areas on the empire's borders. In the early 19th century, the construction of Russian forts began to have a destructive
effect on the Kazakh traditional economy by limiting the once-vast territory over which the nomadic tribes could drive their herds
and flocks. The final disruption of nomadism began in the 1890s, when many Russian settlers were introduced into the fertile lands
of northern and eastern Kazakhstan. In 1906, the Trans-Aral Railway between Orenburg and Tashkent was completed, further
facilitating Russian colonisation of the fertile lands of Semirechie. Between 1906 and 1912, more than a half-million Russian farms
were started as part of the reforms of Russian minister of the interior Petr Stolypin, putting immense pressure on the traditional
Kazakh way of life by occupying grazing land and using scarce water resources. Starving and displaced, many Kazakhs joined in
the general Central Asian Revolt against conscription into the Russian imperial army, which the tsar ordered in July 1916 as part of
the effort against Germany in World War I. In late 1916, Russian forces brutally suppressed the widespread-armed resistance to
the taking of land and conscription of Central Asians. Thousands of Kazakhs were killed, and thousands of others fled to China and
Mongolia. In 1917 a group of secular nationalists called the Alash Orda Horde of Alash, named for a legendary founder of the
Kazakh people, attempted to set up an independent national government. This state lasted less than two years 1918-1920 before
surrendering to the Bolshevik authorities, who then sought to preserve Russian control under a new political system. The Kyrgyz
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was set up in 1920 and was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in
1925 when the Kazakhs were differentiated officially from the Kyrgyz. The Russian Empire recognized the ethnic difference
between the two groups; it called them both Kyrgyz to avoid confusion between the terms Kazakh and Cossack (both names
originating from horse rider.) In 1925, the autonomous republic's original capital, Orenburg, was reincorporated into Russian
territory. Almaty (called Alma-Ata during the Soviet period), a provincial city in the far southeast, became the new capital.  With an
area of 2,717,300 km² (1,063,200 square miles), the Kazakh SSR was the second largest constituent republic of the Soviet Union.
From 1929 to 1934, during the period when Soviet leader Joseph V. Stalin was trying to collectivize agriculture, Kazakhstan
endured repeated famines because peasants had slaughtered their livestock in protest against Soviet agricultural policy. In that
period, at least 1.5 million Kazakhs and 80 percent of the republic's livestock died.  Many European Soviet citizens and much of
Russia's industry were relocated to Kazakhstan during World War II, when Nazi armies threatened to capture all the European
industrial centers of the Soviet Union. One consequence of the decimation of the nomadic Kazakh population and the in-migration
of non-Kazakhs was that by the 1970s Kazakhstan was the only Soviet republic in which the eponymous nationality was a minority
in its own republic. In June 1990, Moscow declared formally the sovereignty of the central government over Kazakhstan, forcing
Kazakhstan to elaborate its own statement of sovereignty. In keeping with practices in other republics at that time, the parliament
had named Nazarbayev its chairman, and then, soon afterward, it had converted the chairmanship to the presidency of the republic.
A week after the election, Nazarbayev became the president of an independent state when the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and
Belarus signed documents dissolving the Soviet Union. On December 16, 1991, Kazakhstan had become the last of the republics to
proclaim its independence. The Soviet Union's spaceport, now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome was located in this republic at
Tyuratam, with the secret town of Leninsk being constructed to accommodate the workers at the Cosmodrome. Current issues
include: resolving ethnic differences; speeding up market reforms; establishing stable relations with Russia, China, and other foreign
powers; and developing and expanding the country's abundant energy resources.
Source: Wikipedia: History of Kazakhstan
ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and
plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring
livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit
rating. Kazakhstan's economy has largely recovered from the global financial crisis of 2008, and GDP increased 7% year-on-year
in 2011. Extractive industries have been and will continue to be the engine of this growth. Landlocked, with restricted access to the
high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbors to export its products, especially oil and grain. Although its Caspian Sea ports,
pipelines, and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation and roadways have been neglected. Telecoms are improving,
but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic
because of regional dependencies. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to
Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the
economic situation, and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan's
economy, it has rebounded well. In response to the crisis, Kazakhstan's government devalued the tenge (Kazakhstan's currency) to
stabilize market pressures and injected around $10 billion in economic stimulus. Rising commodity prices have helped revive
Kazakhstan's economy, which registered roughly 7% growth in 2010-11. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government
realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called "Dutch disease." In response,
Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification program, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport,
pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing. In 2010 Kazakhstan joined the
Belarus-Kazakhstan-Russia Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade relationships. The
government expects to join the World Trade Organization in 2012, which should also help to develop the manufacturing and service
sector base.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Kazakhstan)
POLITICAL CLIMATE
The politics of Kazakhstan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is head of
state and nominates the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both
the government and the two chambers of parliament.

On December 4, 2005, Nursultan Nazarbayev was reelected in a land-slide victory. The electoral commission announced that he
had won over 90% of the vote. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) concluded the election did not
meet international standards despite some improvements in the administration of the election. Xinhua News Agency reported that
Chinese observers, responsible in overseeing 25 polling stations in Astana, found that voting in those polls was conducted in a
"transparent and fair" manner.

The president is the head of state. He also is the commander in chief of the armed forces and may veto legislation that has been
passed by the Parliament. President Nursultan Nazarbayev, who has been in office since Kazakhstan became independent, won a
new 7-year term in the 1999 election that the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe said fell short of international
standards. A major political opponent, former prime minister Akezhan Kazhegeldin, was prohibited from running against the
president because he had attended an unauthorized meeting of "the movement for free elections". On top of this the election was
unconstitutionally called two years ahead of schedule. Free access to the media is also denied to opposing opinions. In 2002 a law
set very stringent requirements for the maintenance of legal status of a political party, which lowered the number of legal parties from
19 in 2002 to 8 in 2003. The prime minister, who serves at the pleasure of the president, chairs the Cabinet of Ministers and serves
as Kazakhstan's head of government. There are three deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in the Cabinet. |Serik Akhmetov
became the Prime Minister in September 2012.
Source:  Wikipedia: Politics of Kazakhstan
INTERNATIONAL
DISPUTES
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries with
Turkmenistan commenced in 2005, and with Uzbekistan in 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway with Russia in 2007;
demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains
under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Azerbaijan and Russia in the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has
been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
REFUGEES AND
INTERNALLY
DISPLACED PERSONS
(IDPS)
Refugees (country of origin): 3,700 (Russia); 508 (Afghanistan) (2007)
ILLICIT DRUGS
Significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug
ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the
rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates
Kazakhstan International
Bureau for Human Rights
U. S. STATE
DEPARTMENT
HUMAN RIGHTS STATEMENTS, ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUES
2011 Human Rights Report: Kazakhstan
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
20
11 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May
25, 2012

The Republic of Kazakhstan has a parliamentary system dominated by President Nursultan Nazarbayev and the ruling Nur Otan Party.
The constitution concentrates power in the presidency. The president controls the legislature and the judiciary as well as the regional and
local government. Changes or amendments to the constitution require presidential consent. The April 3 presidential election, in which
President Nazarbayev received 95 percent of the vote, fell short of international standards. The 2007 national elections for the Mazhilis
(lower house of parliament), in which Nur Otan won every seat in the chamber with 88 percent of the vote, also were flawed. Some
security forces reported to civilian authorities; intelligence services reported to an army general who was appointed as head of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs.

The most significant human rights problems were severe limits on citizens’ rights to change their government; restrictions on freedom of
speech, press, assembly, and association; and lack of an independent judiciary and due process, especially in dealing with pervasive
corruption and law enforcement and judicial abuse. On December 16 and 17, public violence in Mangistau Oblast fueled by a long-
running strike and other social grievances left at least 17 people dead and over 100 injured.

Other reported abuses included: arbitrary or unlawful deprivation of life; military hazing that led to deaths; detainee and prisoner torture
and other abuse; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention; infringements on citizens’ privacy rights;
restrictions on freedom of religion; prohibitive political party registration requirements; restrictions on the activities of nongovernmental
organizations (NGOs); violence and discrimination against women; abuse of children; trafficking in persons; discrimination against
persons with disabilities and ethnic minorities; societal discrimination against gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender persons, and persons
with HIV/AIDS; forced labor; and child labor.

The government took modest steps to prosecute officials who committed abuses, especially in high-profile corruption cases; however,
corruption was widespread and impunity existed, particularly for people with connections to government or law enforcement officials.
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UNITED NATIONS
HUMAN RIGHTS
COUNCIL
19 January 2011
Human Rights Council
Sixteenth session
Agenda item 3
Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil,
political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to
development
Report of the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a
component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and
on the right to non-discrimination in this context, Raquel
Rolnik
Mission to Kazakhstan*

Summary
The Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to
non-discrimination in this context,
undertook an official visit to Kazakhstan from 6 to 13 September 2010. The purpose of the mission
was to gather first-hand information on the status of the realization of the right to
adequate housing and other related human rights in
Kazakhstan. In particular, the Special
Rapporteur focused on the adverse impact of the global economic and financial crises on the
enjoyment of the right to adequate housing and on the large-scale evictions or
displacement of individuals and communities living in or
around the cities of Astana and
Almaty. During her visit to Astana and Almaty, the Special Rapporteur met with a wide range of
Government representatives and non-State actors, and received testimonies from
several people alleging violations of their right to
adequate housing.

The Special Rapporteur welcomes the significant progress that the State has made in the implementation of the right to adequate housing
at the national level. Such measures
include the inclusion of specific provisions on adequate housing in the Constitution, the adoption of a
number of legislative and policy measures, such as the Housing Relations Act
of 1997 and the State housing construction programme for
the period 2008-2010, and the elaboration of a number of incentives, such as a system of housing loans, rental subsidies and land
allotments for the construction of residential houses, to facilitate access to affordable housing for individuals and households belonging
to low-income and disadvantaged groups.

Despite the progress made, a number of key concerns remain. The legal and policy framework in the field of housing, and in particular
the national legislation on forced eviction, do not comply fully with existing international human rights standards, such as the general
comments of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the basic principles on development-based evictions and
displacement. National courts do not, in practice, apply norms of international treaties, nor do they refer to international human rights
standards. There is a high rate of demolition of informal settlements and forced evictions without prior notification, any form of judicial
control or review, or any provision of adequate compensation or alternative accommodation. Many individuals and households have been
seriously affected by the financial and mortgage crisis. A large number of shareholders have been deceived by private construction
companies who left the country with their savings without completing the construction of the buildings, while others have been evicted,
or have been threatened with eviction, as a result of their inability to repay credits and mortgage loans. Despite the emergency measures
taken by the Government to mitigate the negative repercussions of the financial crisis, 42,000 shareholders are still waiting to receive
their apartments.

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FREEDOM HOUSE
Monitoring of Opposition Trial in Kazakhstan Finds Process “Fundamentally Flawed”
Dec 13 2012 - 3:01pm

Freedom House’s final monitoring report on the trial of Kazakhstani opposition activists Vladimir Kozlov and Akzhanat Aminov, and labor
activist Serik Sapargali documents gross violations of the right to a fair trial. The defendants were convicted of inciting social hatred
leading to violence on December 16, 2011, when law enforcement killed at least a dozen protesters in the western town of Zhanaozen.

Kozlov Case File,  based on continuous monitoring throughout the trial, demonstrates that the trial did not meet international and national
standards of the right to a fair trial and impartial justice. In addition to numerous procedural violations documented by Freedom House’s
expert monitor, analysis of the verdict shows that the court’s decision relied on broad interpretations of the law to criminalize normal
political activities. Most glaringly, the verdict held that Kozlov incited “social hatred” against the government by creating a “negative
image and stereotype of the authorities.” The verdict included as fact numerous allegations that were not examined in court.

“The Kozlov trial was a true test of Kazakhstan’s commitment to the rule of law. Unfortunately it was a test Kazakhstan did not pass,
and proved the commitment is in name only,” said Susan Corke, Freedom House’s director of Eurasia programs. “A government that
imprisons the opposition for criticizing it, in a trial marred by consistent procedural violations, is not a government that observes the rule
of law.”

Based on Kozlov’s conviction on October 8th, the government of Kazakhstan has launched a crackdown against a range of opposition
media and outlets associated with him by claiming that they are “extremist.” On December 12th, the television station K+ was banned
across Kazakhstan. The crackdown comes right before the one-year anniversary of the Zhanaozen events on December 16th.

“What we are seeing in Kazakhstan is a dramatic reduction of political and media space in a country that makes frequent claims to being
a leader in human rights,” said Corke. “The international community and especially the United States need to state directly and publicly
that what is happening in Kazakhstan is a betrayal of that country’s commitments as a participating State in the Organization for Security
and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and a newly elected member of the UN Human Rights Council. Failure to do so will be seen as
complicity in undermining universal rights standards.  Kazakhstan cannot be allowed to claim it upholds human rights while repressing
the opposition and cutting off press freedom. ”

Kazakhstan is rated Not Free in Freedom of the World 2012, Freedom House’s annual survey of fundamental freedoms, Not Free in
Freedom of the Press 2012, where it ranked 175th out of 197 countries, and Partly Free in Freedom on the Net 2012.
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AMNESTY
INTERNATIONAL
22 November 2012
Kazakhstan must not muzzle media outlets

The Kazakhstani authorities must not use “extremism” as a pretext to muzzle freedom of the press, Amnesty International said today
after an attempt by the General Prosecutor’s Office to close down some 40 opposition media outlets and websites.

On Wednesday the Almaty city Prosecutor filed a court complaint seeking to close down almost all remaining independent and opposition
media – accusing them of being “extremist”, inciting social discord and threatening national security.

Amnesty International echoes the concerns of 15 Kazakhstan-based human rights organizations who blasted the move, saying it appears
to be the culmination of efforts by the authorities to curtail independent media outlets in the Central Asian country.

“Kazakhstan’s remaining independent voices are at serious risk of being silenced forever if the courts follow through on this complaint,”
said David Díaz-Jogeix, Deputy Director of Amnesty International’s Europe and Central Asia Programme.

The Prosecutor’s complaint covers eight print media and 23 websites owned by a single media conglomerate, as well as one other
newspaper and its supporting websites, and two independent TV channels which broadcast over the internet. It also calls for the
unregistered opposition party Alga and the unregistered social movement Khalyk Maydany to be classified as “extremist”.

Clampdown after violent clashes
On Monday, an appeals court in the south-western region of Mangistau upheld the prison sentence of Vladimir Kozlov, the leader of
Alga, one of Kazakhstan’s unregistered opposition parties. He was previously charged with inciting violent protests during an oil industry
workers’ strike in December 2011.

What began as celebrations of the 20th anniversary of Kazakhstan’s independence turned into the country’s worst violence in recent
history when clashes broke out between protesters and police in the south-western city of Zhanaozen on 16 December 2011.

At least 15 people were killed and more than 100 seriously injured. The violence followed months of strikes by oil industry workers in
Mangistau region over trade union rights and pay and conditions.


In subsequent trials earlier this year, five senior security officials were found guilty of abuse of office and sentenced to five years in
prison for having allowed or used excessive and lethal force to disperse crowds of protesters.

Seven labour activists and protesters were sentenced to up to seven years in prison in May 2012 after Mangistau regional court
convicted them of organizing or participating in the Zhanaozen protests. All the defendants maintained their innocence and claimed that
police tortured them to extract confessions.

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HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
Kazakhstan’s Labor Rights Debacle
Repressive laws and abusive practices violate workers’ rights
by
Mihra Rittman and Hugh Williamson
Published in:
 GlobalPost
September 14, 2012

(Almaty) – For a country that prides itself on economic and political stability, these are testing times for Kazakhstan. The controversial
trial of a prominent opposition politician is the latest episode in an 18-month drama that has cast a shadow over its reputation as a reliable
international partner in the troubled Central Asian region.  

President Nursultan Nazarbayev’s government appears to be painting this drama – which started with unprecedented strikes by
thousands of oil workers – as a dark political conspiracy orchestrated from abroad.

New research by Human Rights Watch shows, however, that repressive laws and abusive practices by the government and some oil
companies violated the labor rights of workers in this vital part of the economy.

The government would do well to put an end to these abuses and meet its commitments to protect human rights, to secure long-term
economic and social stability and reassure Kazakhstan’s trade and investment partners.

Much is at stake for this vast country of 17 million people. Last year’s strikes cost the state up to $365 million, according to official
figures. The government’s international image is managed by Astana, the capital and second largest city, using consultants, including,
Tony Blair, the former UK prime minister. Still, the drama surrounding the trial has dealt a blow to the country’s image.

The key defendant in the landmark trial is Vladimir Kozlov, leader of Alga!, an unregistered opposition party. He is accused of colluding
with Mukhtar Ablyazov, a millionaire government critic with political asylum in the UK, to incite social discord and overthrow
constitutional order.  Kozlov, who could face up to 12 years in prison, has denied the charges. An oil worker and another opposition
activist are on trial with him.

Prosecutors believe the three helped stir up thousands of oil workers in western Kazakhstan to prolong their strike over low pay. Three-
month-long strikes, starting in May 2011, formed the backdrop for the worst social unrest in the country’s recent history. In clashes
between police and others in the western town of Zhanaozen last December 16, police shot 12 people dead, and dozens were wounded.
Navi Pillay, the UN’s high commissioner for human rights, called for an independent international investigation into the violence –
Kazakhstan refused.
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OFFICIAL
GOVERNMENT HUMAN
RIGHTS STATEMENT
Kazakhstan elected to the United Nations Human Rights Council
(13 November
2012, Astana)

It is a matter of pride for the Republic, which has completed only last year its 20th anniversary of independence, to be elected as a
member of the United Nations Human Rights Council, for the first time, on 12 November 2012 in New York. Kazakhstan's nomination
was supported by 183 out of 193 United Nations Member States, and will serve as a member for a three-year term commencing on 1
January 2013.

The Council is the leading international body for the protection of human rights, replacing the Commission on Human Rights. Its
membership, which is open to all United Nations Member States, currently consists of 47 countries, which are elected directly and
individually by secret ballot by the majority of Member States.

Mr. Altay Abibullayev, Spokesperson for Kazakhstan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on this occasion, remarked as follows: “We are
pleased to have been elected to the United Nations Human Rights Council, which we deem not only as a great honour, but as a very
special opportunity to contribute to the global effort of advancing human rights for upholding the dignity of people all of the world.
Kazakhstan has been actively supporting specifically the work of the Council, and generally all endeavours promoting a just and fair
society.

At a time when there are sweeping changes occurring across the world with their new threats and challenges, we see our task
particularly vital at this decisive moment in the history of the United Nations — and in particular for the aspiration set out in the Charter
to provide human dignity for all.”

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan participates annually in the High-level Segment of the Human Rights
Council, which was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 15 March 2006, in accordance with its resolution 60/251. In
February 2010, Kazakhstan successfully passed the Universal Periodical Review, which is a process of assessing the human rights
situation in the countries comprising the World Organization.

On behalf of the Government of Kazakhstan, we would like to thank the Member States of the United Nations for their support and
confidence in electing our young nation to serve on the Human Rights Council. The Republic of
Kazakhstan takes this trust and responsibility seriously and pledges, as part of the international community, to guarantee that universal
human rights are protected and observed across the globe so as to provide a collective security for all in the twenty-first century.
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KAZAKHSTAN
NATIONAL HUMAN
RIGHTS OMBUDSMAN
National seminar for journalists on ethical reporting of child issues was held in Almaty.
11/05/2012

Almaty, 2 November 2012 – A national seminar for journalists “Ethical principles in reporting child issues” was held in Almaty on 1-2
November 2012. The event was organized jointly by the Ombudsman’s office in Kazakhstan, UNICEF Kazakhstan and the Public
Association “The Union of Intellectual Labour Women” and financed by the Embassy of the Kingdom of Norway in Kazakhstan.

Welcoming remarks were made by Vyacheslav Kalyuzhnyi, Head of the National Human Rights Centre, Radoslaw Rzehak, UNICEF
Deputy Representative in Kazakhstan, and Aidar Yessenbekov, Deputy Head of Almaty City Department of Internal Policy.

The workshop brought together child-focused journalists from all the regions of the country. The participants learned about the
experience of Russia and the Scandinavian countries in covering child issues, presented by Valerii Hiltunen, the Vice-president of the
Eurasian Academy of Television and Radio, teacher, child journalist, member of the Russian Union of Journalists, and the winner of
numerous awards in journalism. The experience of Ukraine was presented by Viktor Petrenko, Chairman of the Council of the Ukrainian
Media Workers Association, First Vice-president of the Eurasian Academy of Television and Radio, the Vice-president of the
International Conference of Journalists Unions, PhD in history, honorable worker of culture in Ukraine. The participants also learned
about the issues and challenges in covering child issues in Kazakhstan presented by Helcha Ismailova, a journalist of the “Vremya”
newspaper, the winner of the contest on covering child issues conducted by UNICEF.

The workshop covered various aspects of children’s vulnerability in reporting childhood issues and acute problems such as child
abandonment, inclusion of children with disabilities, use of video and images of children, protection of child rights and interests. In
addition, practical examples of unethical reporting on child related topics were examined. All participants agreed upon the main principle
in covering child related topics – do no harm to the child being covered in the media. The participants lamented the lack of interest from
the large print media in coverage of child-related subjects and expressed a wish to introduce a special course on child journalism at
university departments of journalism. In the prospect, it is planned to hold media workshops with involvement of lawyers and
psychologists as well as international UNICEF experts.
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KAZAKHSTAN
INTERNATIONAL
BUREAU FOR HUMAN
RIGHTS AND RULE OF
LAW
TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
12/13/2012                 
by Editorial Bureau.kz             
The Administrative Court of Almaty issued a ban on the profession

December 12th Inter District Administrative Court of Almaty has created another dangerous precedent and actually approving ban.

For the publication of the newspaper "Azat", founded by the famous, now deceased, social activist Batyrkhan Darimbet, editor of "The
Voice of the Republic" Tatiana Trubacheva was administratively liable and fined 10 MCI. In this case, the newspaper "Azat" Ms
Trubacheva as reporters of its publication, have an indirect relationship: since both belong to the opposition newspaper, "Azat" went to
meet colleagues and gave them their newspaper space for publications.

Note that 1) Newspaper "Azat" was not included in the "black list" of alleged extremist media, 2) during another trial in the prosecution
claim against the newspaper "Voice of the Republic" and the site of "Republic" (the decision is pending), the judge and could not explain -
it carries a ban on publication of "Voices of the Republic" in the collective activity of this prestigious publication.

However, an administrative court judge Mr Kuzembaev just fifteen minutes gave the answer: yes.

As the Administrative Court is no different from their counterparts on the Judiciary, except that smaller scale, as can not condemn all
"dissenters" and dissidents for long periods, so the filth repairing small things.

If you previously practiced in this court bans on photo and video shooting, and depending on the situation and mood of the judges could
not let the process as observers and the press, this time Jesuitism was manifested in another form.

After people had to wait for almost an hour until a judge determined among themselves who will do justice, began to run into the room,
but only for two and after a lengthy testing and journal entries. Naturally, such a pace everyone, including representative of the
Norwegian Helsinki Committee, could not get into the hall due to the fact that the process has already begun ...

So how to get inside the "House of Justice" does not work, then give the dialogue, which was published on the website of "Republic"

 - First, nowhere in the writ my name does not appear in any way. The prosecutor's office against me has not filed a lawsuit, and the
judge in relation to me not make a determination. Secondly, any writ or prosecution's claim, nor in the determination of the court does
not appear in the newspaper "Azat" and impute to me that I let this newspaper, - explained the absurdity of the situation to the judge
Tatiana Trubacheva. And confirmed that from 27 to 30 November she performed in "Azat" chief editor functions on a voluntary basis.
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Nursultan A. Nazarbayev
President since 1 December 1991
Serik Akhmetov
Prime Minister since 24 September 2012
TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS
None reported.
Kairat Kelimbetov
Deputy Prime Minister since 20 January 2011
Krymbek Kusherbayev
Deputy Prime Minister since 27 September 2012
Aset Isekeshev
Deputy Prime Minister since 25 September 2012