Republic of Mali
Republique de Mali
Joined United Nations:  28 September 1960
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 31 January 2013
15,494,466 (July 2012 est.)
Django Cissoko
Prime Minister since 11 December 2012
President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a
second term); election last held 29 April 2007; NOTE- in the
aftermath of the March 2012 coup, deposed President Toure, in a
brokered deal, resigned to facilitate the naming of an interim
president and transition back toward democratic rule (election
scheduled for 29 April 2012 delayed indefinitely following the
military coup)

Next scheduled election: TBD
Prime minister appointed by the president

Next scheduled election:  TBD
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
Republic with 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Legal system is based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Executive: President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 29 April 2007  
Note: in the aftermath of the March 2012 coup, deposed President Toure, in a brokered deal, resigned to facilitate the naming of an
interim president and transition back toward democratic rule. Election scheduled for 29 April 2012 delayed indefinitely following the
military coup ; prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative: Unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 1 and 22 July 2007 (July 2012 scheduled election indefinitely delayed after the military coup)
Judicial: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Mali's early history is dominated by three famed West African empires-- Ghana, Mali or Malinké, and Songhai. These empires
controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and other precious commodities and were in touch with Mediterranean and Middle
Eastern centers of civilization.. All of the empires arose in the area then known as the western Sudan, a vast region of savanna
between the Sahara Desert to the north and the tropical rain forests along the Guinean coast to the south. All were characterized by
strong leadership (matrilineal) and kin-based societies. None had rigid geopolitical boundaries or ethnic identities. The Ghana
Empire, dominated by the Soninke people and centered in the area along the border of the modern states of Mali and Mauritania.
The Ghana Empire began possibly as early as the fifth century AD, and was a powerful trading state between c. 700 and 1075. The
Mali Empire began with the Malinke Kingdom of Mali on the upper Niger River in the 11th century. Expanding rapidly in the 13th
century under the leadership of the Malinké Sundiata Keita. Sundiata led a Mande revolt against the Soso king and then unified a
vast region of the western Sudan into the Mali Empire. It reached its height about 1325, when it conquered Timbuktu and Gao and
extended over a large area centered in the upper Niger and encompassed numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces. The Songhai
people originated in what is now northwestern Nigeria and gradually expanded up the Niger River in the eighth century. They were
well established at Gao by 800 AD, gradually expanding to control neighboring states, and accepting Islam in the late 11th century
when they briefly came under Almoravid dominion. They enjoyed a brief respite after Almoravid power crumbled in 543, but by
1250 had become subject to the rising Mali Empire. In the late fourteenth century, the Songhai gradually gained independence from
the Mali Empire and expanded its borders, ultimately subsuming the entire eastern part of the Mali Empire from its center in Gao
during the period 1465-1530. It was expanded greatly under the rule of Sonni Ali Ber. At its peak under Askia Mohammad I, who
established the Askia Dynasty (1492–1592), it encompassed the Hausa states as far as Kano (in present-day Nigeria) and much of
the territory that had belonged to the Mali Empire in the west (including almost all of what is now Mali). Tombouctou and Djenné
prospered once again, as the rulers actively promoted Islam. The empire eventually collapsed as a result of both internal and
external pressures, including a Moroccan invasion in 1591. The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region’s role as a
trading crossroads. Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost their
significance. After the collapse of the Songhai empire, no single state controlled the region. The Moroccan invaders only succeeded
in occupying a few portions of the country, and even in those locations where they did attempt to rule, their hold was weak and
challenged by rivals. Several small successor kingdoms arose. Among the most notable in what is now Mali were: The Bambara
Empire was established at Ségou (also seen as Segu) in the eighteenth century, and ruled parts of central and southern Mali. A split
in the Kulibali dynasty in Ségou led to the establishment of a second Bambara state in what is now western Mali. It was defeated by
Umar Tall before his war with Ségou. The Senufo Kenedugu Kingdom originated in the 17th century in the area around what is now
the border of Mali and Burkina Faso. In 1877 the capital was moved to Sikasso. It resisted the effort of Samori Ture to conquer it,
and was one of the last kingdoms in the area to fall to the French. An Islamic-inspired uprising in the largely Fula Inland Niger Delta
region against rule by Ségou in 1818 led to establishment of a separate state. It later allied with Ségou against Umar Tall and was
also defeated in 1862. Descendants of Umar Tall ruled most of what is now Mali until the French conquest of the region. This was
in some ways a turbulent period, with ongoing resistance in Massina and increasing pressure from the French. The Wassoulou or
Wassulu empire was led by Samori Ture in the predominately Malinké area of what is now upper Guinea and southwestern Mali
(Wassoulou) during the latter part of the 19th century. It later moved to Côte d'Ivoire before being conquered by the French. The
French colonized Mali in 1893. On April 4, 1959, French Sudan was joined with Senegal to form the Mali Federation, which
became fully independent within the French Community on June 20, 1960. The federation collapsed on August 20, 1960, when
Senegal seceded. On September 22, Soudan proclaimed itself the Republic of Mali and withdrew from the French Community.
President Modibo Keita, whose Union Soudanaise du Rassemblement Democratique Africain (US/RDA) party had dominated pre-
independence politics (as a member of the African Democratic Rally), moved quickly to declare a single-party state and to pursue a
socialist policy based on extensive nationalization. Keita also had close ties to the Eastern bloc. A continuously deteriorating
economy led to a decision to rejoin the Franc Zone in 1967 and modify some of the economic excesses. On November 19, 1968,
a group of young officers staged a bloodless coup and set up a 14-member Military Committee for National Liberation (CMLN),
with Lt. Moussa Traore as president. The military leaders attempted to pursue economic reforms, but for several years faced
debilitating internal political struggles and the disastrous Sahelian drought. A new constitution, approved in 1974, created a one-
party state and was designed to move Mali toward civilian rule. However, the military leaders remained in power. In September
1976, a new political party was established, the Democratic Union of the Malian People (UDPM), based on the concept of
democratic centralism. Single-party presidential and legislative elections were held in June 1979, and Gen. Moussa Traore received
99% of the votes. His efforts at consolidating the single-party government were challenged in 1980 by student-led anti-government
demonstrations, which were brutally put down, and by three coup attempts. The political situation stabilized during 1981 and 1982,
and remained generally calm throughout the 1980s. In late December 1985, however, a border dispute between Mali and Burkina
Faso over the mineral rich Agacher strip erupted into a brief war. The UDPM spread its structure to Cercles and Arrondissements
across the land. By 1990, there was growing dissatisfaction with the demands for austerity imposed by the IMF's economic reform
programs and the perception that the president and his close associates were not themselves adhering to those demands. Cohesive
opposition movements began to emerge, including the National Democratic Initiative Committee and the Alliance for Democracy in
Mali (Alliance pour la Démocratie au Mali—Adema). The increasingly turbulent political situation was complicated by the rise of
ethnic violence in the north in mid-1990. The return to Mali of large numbers of Tuareg who had migrated to Algeria and Libya
during a prolonged drought increased tensions in the region between the nomadic Tuareg and the sedentary population. Ostensibly
fearing a Tuareg secessionist movement in the north, the Traoré regime imposed a state of emergency and harshly repressed Tuareg
unrest. Despite the signing of a peace accord in January 1991, unrest and periodic armed clashes continued. As in other African
countries, demands for multi-party democracy increased. The Traore government allowed some opening of the system, including the
establishment of an independent press and independent political associations, but insisted that Mali was not ready for democracy. In
early 1991, student-led anti-government rioting broke out again, but this time it was supported also by government workers and
others. On March 26, 1991, after 4 days of intense anti-government rioting, a group of 17 military officers, led by current President
Amadou Toumani Touré, arrested President Traore and suspended the constitution. Within days, these officers joined with the
Coordinating Committee of Democratic Associations to form a predominantly civilian, 25-member ruling body, the Transitional
Committee for the Salvation of the People (CTSP). The CTSP then appointed a civilian-led government. A national conference held
in August 1991 produced a draft constitution (approved in a referendum January 12, 1992), a charter for political parties, and an
electoral code. In 1997, attempts to renew national institutions through democratic elections ran into administrative difficulties,
resulting in a court-ordered annulment of the legislative elections held in April 1997. Running as an independent on a platform of
national unity, Touré won the presidency in a runoff against the candidate of Adema, which had been divided by infighting and
suffered from the creation of a spin-off party, the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali—RPM). Touré had retained great
popularity because of his role in the transitional government in 1991–92. The 2002 election was a milestone, marking Mali’s first
successful transition from one democratically elected president to another, despite the persistence of electoral irregularities and low
voter turnout. In January 2012 an insurgency has begun, led by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad. On 22
March 2012, it was reported that rebel troops from the military appeared on state TV announcing they had seized control of the
country. Unrest over the president's handling of the conflict with the rebels was a motivating force. The former President was forced
into hiding. However, due to the 2012 insurgency in northern Mali, the military government controls only the southern third of the
country, leaving the north of the country (known as Azawad) to MNLA rebels. The rebels control Timbuktu, 700 km from the
capital. In response, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) froze assets and imposed an embargo, leaving
some with only days of fuel. Mali is dependent on fuel imports trucked overland from Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. As of July 17,
2012, the Tuareg rebels have since been pushed out by their allies, the Islamists, Ansar Dine, and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
(A.Q.I.M.). An extremist ministate in northern Mali is the unexpected result from the collapse of the earlier coup d'etat by the angry
army officers. Refuges, in the 92,000-person refugee camp at Mbera, Mauritania, describe the Islamists as "intent on imposing an
Islam of lash and gun on Malian Muslims." The Islamists in Timbuktu have destroyed about a half-dozen venerable above-ground
tombs of revered holy men, proclaiming the tombs contrary to Shariah. One refugee in the spoke of encountering Afghans,
Pakistanis and Nigerians. Ramtane Lamamra, the African Union's peace and security commissioner, said the African Union has
discussed sending a military force to reunify Mali and that negotiations with terrorists had been ruled out but negotiations with other
armed factions is still open. On 10 December 2012 Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra was arrested by soldiers and taken to a
military base in Kati. Hours later, the Prime Minister announced his resignation and the resignation of his government on national
television. On 10 January 2013, Islamist forces captured the strategic town of Konna, located 600 km from the capital, from the
Malian army. The following day, the French military launched Opération Serval, intervening in the conflict. As of 30 January 2013,
control of most of northern Mali had been wrested from the Islamists by a French led Malian and African force.
Source: Wikipedia: History of Mali
Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports
for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains
dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its
land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming
and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government in 2011 completed an IMF
extended credit facility program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its
cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify foreign exchange revenue away from gold. Mali has invested in tourism but
security issues are hurting the industry. Mali experienced economic growth of about 5% per year between 1996-2010.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Mali)
Politics of Mali takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mali is
both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.
Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and
the legislature.

Under Mali's 1992 constitution, the president is chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. The president is elected
to 5-year terms, with a limit of two terms. The president appoints the prime minister as head of government. The president chairs the
Council of Ministers (the prime minister and currently 22 other ministers, including 6 women), which adopts proposals for laws
submitted to the National Assembly for approval.

The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) has 160 members, elected for a five year term, 147 members elected in single-seat
constituencies and 13 members elected by the Malinese abroad. The National Assembly is the sole legislative arm of the
government. Until the military coup of March 22nd 2012 and a second military coup in December 2012 the Politics of Mali took
place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mali is head of state with a
Presidentially appointed Prime Minister as the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by
the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the
executive and the legislature.
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of Mali
Demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso.
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
Refugees (country of origin): 12,442 (Mauritania) (2011)
IDPs: 228,918 (Tuareg rebellion in 2012) (2013)
None reported.
National Commission on
Human Rights in Mali
2011 Human Rights Report: Mali
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May 25, 2012

Mali is a constitutional democracy. International and domestic observers characterized the 2007 presidential election, which resulted in
the reelection of President Amadou Toumani Toure, and the 2007 legislative elections, as generally free and fair; however, there were
some administrative irregularities. Security forces reported to civilian authorities.

The most important human rights problems are related to gender inequality, failures of the justice system, and exploitative labor
relationships. Women face domestic violence to which the legal system frequently turns a blind eye, a culture that widely condones
female genital mutilation (FGM), and a legal system that gives preference to men in cases of divorce or inheritance. An ineffective and
corrupt legal system has meant detainees face lengthy pretrial detention unless they are willing and able to pay bribes to obtain their
release. Human trafficking and exploitative labor relationships are not uncommon in the country, especially in regards to child labor.

Other human rights problems included arbitrary and/or unlawful deprivation of life, police abuse of civilians, poor prison conditions, lack
of enforcement of court orders, official corruption and impunity, societal discrimination against black Tamasheqs, discrimination based
on sexual orientation, and societal discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS.

The government took steps to prosecute military officials involved in the hazing-related deaths of five military trainees on October 3, but
some impunity existed in the country.

Northern Mali experienced periodic violence involving banditry, drug trafficking, clashes between rival groups, and attacks by the
terrorist organization Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).
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January 7, 2012
Council of Human Rights
Twenty-second session
Points 2 and 4 of the agenda
Annual Report of the High Commissioner of the United Nations for Human Rights and reports of the Office and the
Situations of human rights that require the Council's attention
Report of the High Commissioner United Nations Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Mali

In its resolution 21/25, the Council of Human Rights reiterated the request made to the High Commissioner of the United Nations Human
Rights (OHCHR) submit a written report on the situation of human rights in Mali at its 22 session. In this regard, the 11 to 20 November
2012, OHCHR deployed a mission to collect information in Mali, Burkina Faso, Mauritania and Niger. That mission was supported by
two officials of the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary- General in charge of the fight against sexual violence in armed
conflict and Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict.

This report highlights violations of human rights that have been committed since the attacks of the Malian army by the National
Movement of Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) in first and Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb Islamic (AQIM) Ansar Dine and the Movement for
the uniqueness and jihad in Africa West (MUJAO) in January 2012. The three major regions of northern Mali, Kidal, Gao Timbuktu and
are under the control of extremist groups, which require the population a strict application of Sharia law. This leads to serious violations
of human rights, including summary executions, rapes, acts of torture, recruitment of child soldiers, violations of freedom of expression
and the right to information, as well as violations of the rights to education and health.

This report also shows that, in the territories under the control of Government, the situation remains worrying in the administration of the
justice, freedom of expression and right to information. The report cases of military and police allegedly detained and tortured in
Bamako, without judicial guarantees Actual. Despite the good faith expressed by the authorities, judicial investigations of trampling

In view of the evidence, the High Commissioner highlighted the risk of retaliation and ethnic conflicts in case of a military intervention in
northern Mali. Finally, the report makes recommendations to various actors involved in the resolution of the crisis in order to protect
civilians and promote reconciliation National.
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Freedom House Condemns Military Coup in Mali
Mar 22 2012 - 2:22pm

Freedom House condemns the overthrow of Malian President Amadou Toumani Toure in an army-led coup that has dissolved the
country’s democratically elected government and seized control of state media, and joins the African Union and others in calling for a
restoration of civilian government under constitutional rule, so that elections, scheduled for next month, may proceed as planned.

Rebel troops, calling themselves the National Council for the Rehabilitation of Democracy and Restoration of the State, assaulted the
presidential palace on March 21 and, by the following morning, announced over state radio and TV that a national curfew is in place and
all borders are closed. The mutiny began with protests against the government for failing to adequately equip troops engaged in combat
with ethnic Tuareg separatists in Mali’s northern desert, where hostilities have flared since 2006.

“We are deeply concerned about the unfolding events taking place in Mali, a long standing democratic ally in West Africa and a shining
example for pro-democracy advocates across the continent,” said Robert Herman, vice present of regional programs at Freedom House.
“We should recall that Mali played an instrumental role in the creation of the Community of Democracies and currently sits on its
Governing Council. We urge those responsible for these highly negligent actions to abide by the rule of law and rightfully return power
to the country’s democratically elected civilian leadership.”

Mali is an electoral democracy that has ranked highly in political rights and civil liberties since 1993.  It is one of few countries in Africa
rated Free in Freedom House’s Freedom of the World 2011 and Freedom of the Press 2011 reports.  
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Mali: First assessment of the human rights situation after three week conflict
1 February 2013


An Amnesty International delegation concludes today a ten-day mission in Mali and presents
below its preliminary findings. The
delegation visited the towns of Ségou, Sévaré and Niono.
They were also able to conduct research in the towns of Konna and Diabaly
shortly after they
had been retaken by the Malian and the French military forces.

This is the fourth mission carried out by Amnesty International since the beginning of the conflict in January 2012. The organization
published last year three reports highlighting
serious human rights violations and abuses committed by the Malian army as well as Tuareg
and Islamists armed groups

A clearer picture of the toll of the conflict is just beginning to emerge. But it remains very difficult to confirm the full circumstances of
many alleged violations. Amnesty International
has received credible reports that civilians have been extrajudicially executed by the Malian
military since 10 January 2013. In addition, at least five civilians, including three young
children, were killed in an air attack launched in
the context of the joint French and Malian
counter offensive aiming to take over the town of Konna.

Amnesty International has also collected testimonies about human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law by armed
Islamist groups including unlawful
killings and the use of child soldiers.

Information received by Amnesty International indicates that after Malian and French military forces took over the towns of Gao and
Timbuktu, Tuareg and Arabs civilians accused of being
close to the Islamist armed groups were targeted by segments of the population
and some of
their belongings were looted. Amnesty International received calls of help from people living in Gao who claimed being
targeted because of their alleged links with Tuareg or Islamist
armed groups while government forces were reportedly at times standing
by. Amnesty
International has not yet had the opportunity to investigate these allegations.
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Mali: Islamist Armed Groups Spread Fear in North
Treat Population Humanely; Release Child Soldiers; End Attacks on Religious Shrines
September 25, 2012

(Nairobi) – Three Islamist armed groups controlling northern Mali have committed serious abuses against the local population while
enforcing their interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, Human Rights Watch said today. Human Rights Watch in recent weeks has
interviewed some one hundred witnesses who have fled the region or remain there.

The three rebel groups – Ansar Dine, the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO), and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
(AQIM) – have recruited several hundred children into their forces; carried out executions, floggings, and at least eight amputations as
punishment; and systematically destroyed numerous religious shrines of cultural and religious importance.In April 2012, the rebel groups
consolidated their control over the northern regions of Kidal, Timbuktu, and Gao.

“The Islamist armed groups have become increasingly repressive as they have tightened their grip over northern Mali,” said Corinne
Dufka, senior Africa researcher at Human Rights Watch. “Stonings, amputations, and floggings have become the order of the day in an
apparent attempt to force the local population to accept their world view. In imposing their brand of Sharia law, they have also meted out
a tragically cruel parody of justice and recruited and armed children as young as 12.”

Since July, Human Rights Watch has conducted 97 interviews in Mali’s capital, Bamako, with witnesses and victims of abuses, as well
as others knowledgeable about the human rights situation, including religious and traditional leaders, medical personnel, rights activists,
teachers, diplomats, journalists, and government officials. Many witnesses had fled the affected areas; those who remained in rebel-
controlled areas were interviewed by telephone. Witnesses described abuses taking place in the northern towns of Gao, Timbuktu,
Goundam, Diré, Niafounké, Ansongo, Tissalit, Aguelhoc, and Kidal.

In January, the rebel groups had undertaken a military offensive to gain control of northern Mali, originally alongside separatist ethnic
Tuareg group, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA). They have since largely driven the MNLA out of the north.

Ansar Dine aims to impose a strict interpretation of Sharia throughout Mali. AQIM, affiliated with al Qaeda since January 2007, has been
implicated in attacks against civilians and kidnaping for ransom of tourists, businessmen, and aid workers, some of whom have been
executed. MUJAO, created in late 2011 as a largely Mauritanian offshoot of AQIM, has claimed responsibility for kidnapping several
humanitarian workers and, on April 5, seven Algerian diplomats. MUJAO and Ansar Dine have claimed responsibility for many abuses,
including killings, amputations, and the destruction of religious shrines and other culturally important structures.

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Friday, January 25, 2013 9:32 p.m.

The Council of Ministers met in special session Friday, January 25, 2013 in his hall deliberations Koulouba Palace under the
chairmanship of President Acting Professor Dioncounda TRAORE.

After reviewing the items on the agenda, the Council adopted the draft roadmap for the Transition Policy.

Since January 17, 2012, our country is under attack by armed terrorist groups and independence. This situation has led to the events that
led to the rupture of the constitutional order and the occupation of two thirds of the national territory.

Under pressure from the International Community and the Economic Community of African States (ECOWAS), the National Committee
for the Recovery of Democracy and the Restoration of the State has signed the Framework Agreement April 6, 2012 which provides,
inter alia, the establishment of the organs of Transition.

Thus, the President and the Acting Government of National Unity has been invested and the tasks to be performed during the transitional

This road serves as a framework for government action for that period.

It was developed on the basis of a participatory process involving the forces of the nation and civil society organizations.

It is based on two main tasks:

- Restoration of the integrity of the national territory,
- The organization of free and transparent elections.

As part of the restoration of the integrity of the national territory, the Government pursues the following objectives:

- The liberation of areas under the control of armed groups with other militaries bilateral, regional or international
- The establishment of a defense and security to ensure peace and tranquility;
- The restructuring of the Army, the training of military personnel and upgrading of equipment;
- The organization of discussions with the armed groups that involve neither secularism nor territorial integrity;
- Organizing the return of the Administration in the occupied areas;
- The voluntary return of refugees and displaced persons in the northern regions and support their social integration;
- The organization of inter-communal dialogues;
- The fight against impunity;
- The establishment of a national dialogue and reconciliation.
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Human Rights in Mali: The National Commission assesses dark
October 8, 2012

The National Commission on Human Rights (CNDH) presented the 2011 annual report on the situation of human rights in Mali and
detailed report on the events of 2012.

President of the CNDH, Mr. Coulibaly Kadidia Sangaré presenting the report

Surrounded by the first vice president, Amadou Bocar Tékété and general rapporteur Berthé Ibrahim, president of the CNDH, Me Kadidia
Sangare, gave the situation of human rights through the 12 pages gently. The 2011 Annual Report outlines the civil and political rights,
economic, social and cultural rights, giving prominence to the situation of women and children. The paper also discusses the
implementation of the recommendations of the Universal Periodic Review 2008 and the 2010 report of the NHRC.

Despite the government's efforts to implement the recommendations and the adoption of the texts of the Code of Persons and the
Family, the judicial system, etc., deficiencies remain. I Kadidia Sangaré believes that the crisis has led to serious violations of human
rights both north and south of the country with the events of 30 April to 1 May 2012.

Speaking of the detailed report on the events of 2012, the president of the CNDH said that this year the situation is catastrophic. This
document notes the violations of human rights committed by the armed movements, including attacks on religious freedom and cultural
rights, war crimes and genocide, violations of the rights of the child rape , amputations and corporal punishment, stoning, violations of
civil liberties, humanitarian crisis, the right to freedom of the press, etc..

The detailed report also criticized in relation to the rupture of the constitutional order, arbitrary arrests, destruction, theft and looting of
public and private property, physical attacks, clashes between red berets and green berets, executions killings, torture, cruel and inhuman
treatment of detainees.
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Mali: the Ombudsman appointed Prime Minister Sissoko Django
The with AFP | 12/11/2012 at 22:38

Malian President appointed Acting on Tuesday, December 11 Ombudsman Diango Sissoko Prime Minister, the same day the forced
resignation of the position of Cheick Modibo Diarra, according to a decree read on state television Mali ORTM.

Mr. Sissoko, aged 62, was Ombudsman since May 2011. Doctor of Law, he was notably Secretary General to the Presidency of the
Republic under Moussa Traor e, a soldier who was overthrown in 1991 after more than twenty-two years in power . Mr. Sissoko was
also held the same position from 2008 to 2011 under the presidency of Amadou Toumani Touré, who was deposed by the coup last

Shortly before the publication of the decree appointing Mr. Sissoko, Malian President Acting Dioncounda Traor é, announced that it had
accepted the resignation of Mr. Diarra and appoint his successor "in twenty-four hours," indicating that the new government would be
known "by the end of the week."

A read : Mali: UN condemns the arrest of the Prime Minister "


Captain Amadou Haya Sanogo, leader of the coup Malian Tuesday justified the forced resignation of Cheick Modibo Diarra, calling it a
"stumbling block" who had "no regard for the people," in an interview with public television Mali.

Captain Sanogo also said that the former prime minister "had no regard for the people" and "not recognize the authority of the President
of the Republic" Acting Dioncounda Traoré. In this interview, he asserts that the coup were not forced to resign Diarra. "It has not
forced, it was just easier. Forced, it is with the forces of violence,"- he said.

Captain Sanogo ensures that the former prime minister "going well", "he is at home last night." He denies that Mr. Diarra was placed
under house arrest at his home as told AFP Tuesday morning a member of the family of Mr. Diarra. "We are in a moral obligation to
protect it. (. ..) It is not arrested or under house arrest, "assured the officer .

Captain Sanogo has also denied being "opposed" to the deployment of an international force in northern Mali , occupied for eight months
by Islamist arm ed linked to al-Qaeda. "This is completely disjointed," he said , referring to the allegations of his opposition to the
deployment of such a force. "We did not oppose whatever is (...) We need as it can save the people of Mali, "at he said.
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Dioncounda Traore
President since 12 April 2012
Current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and
sex trafficking; women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as
subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are found in conditions of forced labor in agricultural settings, gold mines, and the informal
commercial sector, as well as forced begging both within mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel
through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya, in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human
trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to the longstanding practice of debt bondage in the salt mines
of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's black Tamachek community are subjected to traditional slavery-related
practices, and this involuntary servitude reportedly has extended to their children

Tier rating: Tier 2 - the Government of Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking;
however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government acknowledged that human trafficking is a problem in Mali, but it
did not demonstrate significant efforts to prosecute and convict trafficking offenders; Mali was not placed on Tier 3 because the
government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the
minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is devoting sufficient resources to implement that plan (2012)