Republic of Montenegro
Republika Crna Gora
Joined United Nations:  28 June 2006
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 25 July 2012
Podgorica (administrative capital)
Cetinje (capital city)
657,394 (July 2011 est.)
Igor Luksic
Prime Minister since 29 December 2010
President elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a
second term); election last held 6 April 2008

Next scheduled election: 2013
Prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly

Next scheduled election: 2013
Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12%
Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)
Republic with 21 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Legal system is based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
Executive: President elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 April 2008 (next to be held in
2013); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
Legislative: Unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote for four-year terms; changed from 74 seats in 2006)
elections: last held 29 March 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
Judicial: Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Serbian 63.6%, Montenegrin (official) 22%, Bosnian 5.5%, Albanian 5.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2003 census)
The linguist Matteo Bartoli wrote that the name Montenegro derives from the Venetian words for "black mountain", because the
black appearance of Mount Lovćen's pine forests inspired early Venetian conquerors. Crna Gora calques Monte negro in the
Montenegrin, Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian language. Before the arrival of the Slav peoples in the Balkans during the sixth century
AD, the area now known as Montenegro was inhabited principally by the Illyrians. Along the seaboard of the Adriatic, the
movement of peoples that was typical of the ancient Mediterranean world ensured the settlement of a mixture of colonists, traders,
and those in search of territorial conquest. Substantial Greek colonies were established on the coast during the sixth and seventh
centuries BC and Celts are known to have settled there in the fourth century BC. During the third century BC, an indigenous Illyrian
kingdom emerged with its capital at Skadar. The Romans mounted several punitive expeditions against local pirates and finally
conquered this Illyrian kingdom in AD 9, annexing it to the province of Illyricum. The division of the Roman Empire between Roman
and Byzantine rule – and subsequently between the Latin and Greek churches – was marked by a line that ran northward from
Skadar through modern Montenegro, symbolizing the status of this region as a perpetual marginal zone between the economic,
cultural, and political worlds of the Mediterranean peoples and the Slavs. As Roman power declined, this part of the Dalmatian
coast suffered from intermittent ravages by various semi-nomadic invaders, especially the Goths in the late fifth century and the
Avars during the sixth century. These soon were supplanted by the Slavs, who became widely established in Dalmatia by the middle
of the seventh century. Because the terrain was extremely rugged and lacked any major sources of wealth such as mineral riches,
the area that is now Montenegro became a haven for residual groups of earlier settlers, including some tribes who had escaped
Romanization. Around 753, the population was first described as Red Croats. Although the people would enjoy factual
independence, they would attract Serbian influence in the ninth century. Under the following missions of Cyril and Methodus, the
population was Christianized. The tribes (Mixed slav-romanized illyrians) organized into a semi-independent dukedom of Duklja
(Doclea) by the tenth century. After facing subsequent Bulgarian domination, the people were split as the Doclean brother-archonts
split the lands among each other after 900. Prince Časlav Klominirović of the Serbian House of Vlastimirović dynasty extended his
influence over Doclea in the tenth century. After the fall of the Serbian Realm in 960, the Docleans faced a renewed Byzantine
occupation through to the eleventh century. The expansions of the Kings of the House of Vojislavljević led to the control over the
regional Slavs lands, including Zahumlje, Bosnia and Rascia. The might of the Doclei declined and they generally became subjected
to the Grand Princes of Rascia in the twelfth century. The era marks a major watershed in Montenegro's history as Nemanjas
forcibly imposed Serbian Orthodox religion onto most of the Doclean population. The independent principality of Zeta (which more
closely corresponds to the early modern state of Montenegro) asserted itself towards 1360. After the fall of the Western Roman
Empire (476), the romanized Illyrians of the southern coast of Dalmatia survived the barbarian invasions of the Avars in the sixth
century and were only nominally under the influence of the Slavs in the seventh and eighth centuries. In the last centuries of the first
millennium, these romanized Illyrians started to develop their own neo-Latin language, called dalmatian language, around their small
coastal villages that were growing with maritime commerce. The Croatian and slav presence was minimal in the area of Cattaro
(Kotor) in those centuries. Venice started to take control of these small southern dalmatian villages around the tenth century,
assimilating quickly the dalmatian language into the venetian language. The Republic of Venice dominated the coasts of today's
Montenegro from 1420 to 1797. In those four centuries the area around the Cattaro (Kotor) became part of the Venetian Albania-
Montenegro, called in those centuries Albania veneta. In 1516, the secular prince Đurađ V Crnojević abdicated in favor of the
Archbishop Vavil, who then formed Montenegro into a theocratic state under the rule of the prince-bishop (vladika) of Cetinje, a
position transmitted from 1697 by the Petrović-Njegoš family of the Riđani clan, from uncle to nephew as the bishops were not
allowed to marry. Petar Petrović Njegoš perhaps the most influential vladika, reigned in the first half of the nineteenth century. It is
interesting to note that the Ottoman chronicler Evlija Celebija referred to the Orthodox Montenegrins as "pure, original Croats"
when he visited the Piva region in 1664. In 1851 Danilo Petrović Njegoš became vladika, but in 1852 he married, threw off his
ecclesiastical character, assuming the title of knjaz (Prince) Danilo I, and transformed his land into a secular principality. Following
the assassination of Danilo by Todor Kadic, in 1860, the Montenegrins proclaimed Nicholas I as his successor on August 14 of that
year. The reign of Nicholas I (1860 – 1918) saw the doubling of Montenegro's territory and international recognition of her
independence (1878). He also granted the country's first constitution (1905) and was elevated to the rank of King (1910).
Montenegro suffered severely in World War I. At the first invasion of Serbia by the Austrian armies, Montenegro lost no time in
declaring war against the Central Powers. Montenegro also suffered invasion (January 1916) and for the remainder of the war
remained in the possession of the Central Powers. King Nicholas fled to Italy and then to France; the government transferred its
operations to Bordeaux. Eventually the forces of Serbia liberated Montenegro from the Austrians. A newly-convened National
Assembly of Podgorica (Podgorička skupština), supervised by Serbian forces, accused the king of seeking a separate peace with
the enemy and because of that deposed him, followed by a ban on his return. Montenegro subsequently joined in Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on December 1, 1918. Montenegro thus became the only Allied nation to lose its independence after
the war. In the period between the two World Wars, King Alexander dominated the Yugoslav government. The inter war period
was marked with internal strife, ethnic violence, and rebellions. The country was at a crossroads of whether to be an independent
Montenegro or a part of the large Yugoslav whole. During WWII Mussolini occupied Montenegro in 1941 and annexed to the
Kingdom of Italy the area of Kotor (Cattaro), where there was a small Venetian speaking population (the Queen of Italy - Elena of
Montenegro - was daughter of the former king of Montenegro and was born in Cetinje). The Independent State of Montenegro
was created under fascist control when Krsto Zrnov Popović returned from his exile in Rome in 1941 to attempt to lead the
Zelenaši ("Green" party), who supported the reinstatement of the Montenegrin monarchy. Tito's partisans won the war of liberation
and acknowledged Montenegro's massive contribution to the war against the Axis Powers and its desire for a renewed status by
establishing it as one of the six republics of Yugoslavia. From 1945 to 1992, Montenegro became a constituent republic of the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Montenegro became economically stronger than ever, since it gained help from federal
funds as an under-developed republic, and it became a tourist destination as well. The breakup of Communist Yugoslavia (1991-
1992) and the introduction of a multi-party political system found Montenegro with a young leadership that had risen to office only a
few years earlier in the late 1980s. In April 1992, following a hastily-arranged referendum, Bulatović (as President) and Đukanović
(as Prime Minister) joined Montenegro with Milošević's Serbia in forming the "new" Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which officially
put the old Yugoslavia to rest. Due to its favourable geographical location (it had access to the Adriatic Sea and a water-link to
Albania across Lake Skadar) Montenegro became a hub for smuggling activity. In 2003, after years of wrangling and outside
assistance, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia renamed itself as "Serbia and Montenegro" and officially reconstituted itself as a
loose state union. The State Union had a parliament and an army in common, and during the three years (till 2006), neither Serbia
nor Montenegro held a referendum on the break-up of the union. However, a referendum was announced in Montenegro to decide
the future of the republic. The ballots cast in the Montenegrin independence referendum, 2006 resulted in a 55.5% victory for
independence supporters, just above the 55% borderline mark set by the EU. Montenegro declared independence on June 3, 2006.
In March 2007 Montenegrin officials apologized for involvement in attacks on the Croatian city of Dubrovnik, which caused several
hundred civilian deaths and destroyed countless homes, and agreed to pay damages. Some estimates place the value of the damage
at around €35 million. So far, Montenegro has paid up only €375,000 as compensation for looting the area's cattle.

Source: Wikipedia: History of Montenegro
Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system, but the state sector remains large and additional institutional changes are
needed. The economy relies heavily on tourism and the export of refined metals. Unprofitable state-owned enterprises weigh on
public finances. Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained
its own central bank, adopted the deutsch mark, then the euro - rather than the Yugoslav dinar - as official currency, collected
customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006
led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro became the 156th member of World
Trade Organization in December 2011. The European Council (EC) granted candidate country status to Montenegro at the
December 2010 session. Montenegro will begin negotiations to join the EC in 2012, if it meets the conditions set down by the
European Council, which call on Montenegro to take further steps to fight corruption and organized crime. Unemployment and
regional disparities in development are key political and economic problems. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex
- the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism
sector. The global financial crisis had a significant negative impact on the economy, due to the ongoing credit crunch, a decline in the
real estate sector, and a fall in aluminum exports. In 2011, real GDP growth reached 1.8%, the highest it has been in three years.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Montenegro)
The current Constitution of Montenegro was ratified and adopted by the Constitutional Parliament of Montenegro  on 19 October
2007. The Constitution was officially proclaimed as the Constitution of Montenegro on 22 October 2007. This Constitution
replaced the Constitution of 1992.

The new Constitution defines Montenegro as a civic, democratic and environmentally friendly country with social justice, established
by the sovereign rights of its government.

The current Government of the Republic of Montenegro (Влада Републике Црне Горе, Vlada Republike Crne Gore) comprises
the prime minister, the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers. Milo Đukanović is the Prime Minister of Montenegro and head of
the Government. The ruling entity in Montenegro is the Coalition for a European Montenegro, headed by Democratic Party of
Socialists of Montenegro (DPS) (Демократска Партија Социјалиста Црне Горе).

The Parliament of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Скупштина Црне Горе, Skupština Crne Gore) is the legislature of Montenegro.
The Parliament currently has 81 members, each elected for a four-year term. Montenegro has a multi-party system, with numerous
parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition

The Assembly passes all laws in Montenegro, ratifies international treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all
courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. The Parliament can pass a vote of no-
confidence on the Government by a majority of the members. One deputy is elected per 6,000 voters, which in turn results in a
reduction of total number of deputies in the Assembly of Montenegro.
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of Montenegro
None reported.
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
Refugees (country of origin): 7,000 (Kosovo); note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999
IDPs: 16,192 (ethnic conflict in 1999 and riots in 2004) (2007)
None reported.
Centre For Democracy and
Human Rights Montenegro
2011 Human Rights Reports: Montenegro
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
11 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
y 25, 2012

Montenegro is a mixed parliamentary and presidential republic. Both the president and the unicameral parliament (the Assembly) are
popularly elected. The president nominates, and the Assembly approves, the prime minister. According to international observers,
Assembly elections held in 2009 met international standards but underscored the need for further democratic development. Security
forces reported to civilian authorities.

One of the most important human rights problems facing the country was the mistreatment of refugees and other persons displaced as a
consequence of conflicts in the 1990s and the absence of a resolution of their legal status. Another was societal discrimination based on
gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, age, and disability. Corruption continued to be a serious problem, despite some improvements in the
government’s battle against it. It was fostered by extensive cronyism and nepotism, weak controls over conflicts of interest, and the
failure of the executive and judicial branches to identify and prosecute corrupt high-ranking officials.

Other human rights problems included police mistreatment of suspects under arrest; substandard prison conditions; lengthy pretrial
detention and protracted and inefficient trials; inadequate independence of the judiciary; physical attacks on journalists and politicization
of the media that weakened the effectiveness of the press; denial of public access to information; domestic and other violence against
women; child marriage among the Roma; and trafficking in persons. Roma lacked adequate access to employment, education, and
housing. Infringement of workers’ rights and child labor were also reported.

The government took steps to prosecute and punish officials who committed abuses, whether in the security services or elsewhere in
the government. Nevertheless, impunity remained a problem in some areas.
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21 October 2011
Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women
Fiftieth session
Geneva, 3 – 21 October 2011
Concluding observations of the Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women

A. Introduction
2.2. The Committee expresses its appreciation to the State party for its initial report, which was detailed and generally followed the
Committee’s guidelines for the preparation
of reports. However, it regrets that the report was overdue and lacked sex-disaggregated
statistics and qualitative data on the situation of women in a number of areas covered by the
Convention, in particular in respect of
women from disadvantaged groups. The Committee
expresses its appreciation to the State party for its written replies to the list of issues
questions raised by the Committee’s pre-session working group, and the frank responses to the questions posed orally by the

B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes the adoption, since the entry into force of the Convention for the State party, of several legislative measures
aimed at eliminating discrimination
against women, including:
(a) The Law on Gender Equality (2007) which prohibits discrimination based on
sex and provides for measures to promote equal
opportunities for women and men in all
spheres of public life;
(b) The Law on the Prohibition of Discrimination (2010) which defines and
prohibits direct and indirect discrimination based on sex,
sexual orientation, gender identity
and other grounds, provides for remedies, and strengthens the protection role of the Protector of
Human Rights and Freedoms (Ombudsman) in relation to discrimination;
(c) The Law on the Protector of Human Rights and Freedoms (2011) which
designates the Ombudsman Institution as the mechanism
for the prevention and protection
against discrimination and includes gender equality among its main responsibilities;

C. Principal areas of concern and recommendations
6. The Committee recalls the obligation of the State party to systematically and continuously implement all the provisions of the
Convention and views the concerns
and recommendations identified in the present concluding observations as requiring the priority
attention of the State party between now and the submission of the next
periodic report. Consequently, the Committee urges the State
party to focus on those
areas in its implementation activities and to report on actions taken and results achieved in its next periodic
report. The Committee calls upon the State party to
submit the present concluding observations to all relevant ministries and government
departments, to the Parliament of Montenegro, as well as to the judiciary, so as to
ensure their full implementation.
7. While reaffirming that the Government has the primary responsibility and is
particularly accountable for the full implementation of the
obligations of the State
party under the Convention, the Committee stresses that the Convention is binding on all branches of the State
apparatus. It invites the State party to encourage its Parliament, in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps
with regard to the implementation of the present concluding observations and the State party’s next reporting process under the

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Montenegro Journalist Attacked After Exposing Fraud
Mar 12 2012 - 3:38pm

Freedom House condemns the recent attack on Vijesti daily newspaper writer Olivera Lakic, who was beaten by an unknown assailant
outside of her apartment in Podgorica, Montenegro on March 7 – likely in retaliation for a series of articles she wrote alleging a local
factory committed fraud. Lakic suffered a concussion and was briefly hospitalized.  Authorities must follow through on their
commitment to investigate the attack and previous threats against Lakic and other Vijesti writers in an effort to ensure their safety.  After
publishing a series of articles in 2011 alleging that a factory producing cigarettes with counterfeit branding engaged in fraud, Lakic and
other reporters faced threats. In August 2011, several vehicles owned by the newspaper were burned. In addition, two men currently are
facing trial for threatening Lakic and her family in February 2011.

Montenegro is rated Partly Free in Freedom of the Press 2011. While freedom of the press is guaranteed by the constitution and typically
respected in practice, a series of politically motivated attacks against journalists in recent years is cause for concern. In September 2007,
Vijesti cofounder Zeljko Ivanovic was assaulted by two men outside of a restaurant where the newspaper was celebrating its 10th
anniversary. Two hooded assailants attacked Radio Berane journalist Tufik Softic outside of his home in November 2007. In August
2009, an editor and photojournalist from Vijesti were allegedly attacked by the mayor and his son after photographing his illegally parked
car. In September 2010, five Vijesti staffers, including cofounder Ivanovic, received death threats via mail.
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24 May 2012
Report 2012: No longer business as usual for tyranny and injustice
Strong Arms Trade Treaty needed as UN Security Council looks unfit for purpose

The courage shown by protesters in the past 12 months has been matched by a failure of leadership that makes the UN Security Council
seem tired, out of step and increasingly unfit for purpose, Amnesty International said as it launched its 50th global human rights report
with a call for a strong global Arms Trade Treaty later this year.

“Failed leadership has gone global in the last year, with politicians responding to protests with brutality or indifference. Governments
must show legitimate leadership and reject injustice by protecting the powerless and restraining the powerful. It is time to put people
before corporations and rights before profits,” said Salil Shetty, Amnesty International Secretary General.

The UN meeting to agree an Arms Trade Treaty in July will be an acid test for politicians to place rights over self-interest and profit.
Without a strong treaty, the UN Security Council’s guardianship of global peace and security seems doomed to failure; its permanent
members wielding an absolute veto on any resolution despite being the world’s largest arms suppliers.

Other global developments highlighted in Amnesty International Report 2012:

   In Russia, civic activism grew and the country saw its largest demonstrations since the collapse of the Soviet Union, but opposition
voices were abused and systematically undermined.
   There was no sign of significant change in countries such as Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This year’s Eurovision Song Contest
host, Azerbaijan, suppressed freedom of expression and 16 prisoners of conscience are still behind bars for raising their voices in 2011.
   Trends included abuses against Indigenous communities in the Americas as drives to exploit resources intensified; worsening
discrimination in Africa over people’s sexual orientation or gender identity; increased xenophobic rhetoric from some European
politicians; and increased vulnerability to terrorist acts in Africa by Islamist armed groups.
   Progress including the global trend towards abolition of the death penalty; the erosion of impunity for past abuses in the Americas;
and landmark steps towards justice in Europe with the arrests of General Ratko Mladić and Croatian Serb Goran Hadžić, to face trial for
crimes committed in the 1990s wars in former Yugoslavia.
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Statement on Stockpile Destruction and the Convention on Cluster Munitions
Mark Hiznay Delivers Statement at the Intersessional Meetings of the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Geneva
April 18, 2012

Thank you, Chair.

The Convention on Cluster Munitions’provisions on stockpile destruction are at the heart of the convention’s ability to prevent further
suffering and damage from these indiscriminate weapons. Every state that destroys its stocks contributes in a concrete and immediate
way to lowering the global risk of transfers, use, and future humanitarian harm from cluster munitions.

Nineteen States Parties have declared stockpiles of 1.04 million cluster munitions, containing over 144 million explosive submunitions in
their initial transparency reports.

A significant amount of these stockpiles have already been destroyed: 650,000 cluster munitions and 68.2 million explosive submunitions.
While recognizing that some destruction programs were in operation prior to entry into force of the convention, this activity represents
the destruction of 62-percent of declared cluster munitions and 47-percent of declared explosive submunitions.

This is an outstanding accomplishment reached early in implementation of the convention, and it dispels doubts raised about the
destruction of stockpiles being too costly and/or technically challenging.  The CMC welcomes the announcement by Bosnia and
Herzegovina today that all stockpiled cluster munitions have been destroyed. This makes Bosnia and Herzegovina the ninth in the group
of States Parties that have completed their destruction program including Austria, Belgium, Ecuador, Moldova, Montenegro, Norway,
Portugal, and Spain.
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Montenegro set to combat corruption, requires all stakeholders' involvement
Podgorica, Montenegro (10 July 2012)

Corruption is one of most significant and most challenging priorities in Montenegro’s efforts to build a healty society based on European
standards and achieve its key foreign policy goals – EU and NATO membership, Deputy Prime Minister and Justice and Human Rights
Minister Duško Marković emphasised at the opening of the round table on anti-corruption policies in Montenegro earlier today.

When it comes to the prevention of corruption, DPM Marković noted, Montenegro has to continue its efforts related to the
implementation of newly adopted anti-corruption legislation, campaigns to raise awareness as regards the danger of corruption, and the
strengthening of civil servants' integrity and respect for code of ethics for judges and prosecutors. It will also have to strenghten the
bodies responsible for overseeing the implementation of anti corruption measures, and encourage citizens and employees to report
corruption to relevant authorities.

In DPM Markovič’s words, The Government will also carry on the implementation of the Open Government Partnership’s (OGP)
Action Plan. He pointed out that the OGP ranked the Montenegrin Government among the world's top 10 governments with regard to its
envisaged anti-corruption measures such as the citizens’ e-petitions and the protection of whistleblowers.

With the view of suppressing corruption, the Government is set to continue the implementation of the Code on Criminal Procedure,
further enhance prosecutorial investigation and empower the Special Investigative Team's capacities. Increasing judiciary efficiency,
continuation of regional and international cooperation, and strengthening the Government’s capability to detect, prosecute and punish
corruption at all levels in health, education, police, judiciary and politics, are also the necessary measure in achieving adequate results in
combating this challenge, DPM Marković said.

DPM Marković invites on this ocasion the continued partnership between the Government, civil society and media in tackling the issue
of corruption in the process of Montenegro's EU integration.
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17 July 2012

Protector of human rights and freedoms of Montenegro Sucko Baković met with the executive coordinator of the Center for Roma
Initiatives Fano Delije and president of the Roma and Egyptian women's network "first" Bahiya Ramović. The meeting was organized at
the request of the Center for Roma Initiatives to discuss the current problems of the female population of Roma and Egyptian
communities. In this regard, special emphasis is placed on the newly adopted Strategy for the Empowerment of Roma and Egyptians in
Montenegro 2012-2016, and the need to adopt a National Action Plan for Roma and Egyptian in Montenegro 2012-2016. in order to fully
define the special and specific problems of Roma and Egyptian, who were not treated with the Strategy. The institution of human rights
and freedoms of Montenegro fully supports activities related to the implementation of gender equality, especially in terms of social
inclusion of Roma and Egyptian, to improve general living conditions and raising the level of their rights.
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Conference: Human Rights in Montenegro
Thursday, 19 July 2012 00:00

“It is necessary to strengthen the mechanisms of human rights protection in Montenegro: to further enforce judicial reform; to further
strengthen the position of courts in relation to other state institutions; to ensure independence of the state prosecution by initiating
complaints in case of violation of fundamental human rights as well as to improve capacities of the Police administration”. This statement
represents one of key messages of the conference “Human Rights in Montenegro” which was organized by Centre for Democracy and
Human Rights (CEDEM) and AIRE Center from London.

The Conference represents closing activity of the project: “Active Monitoring of the Human Rights in Montenegro” which is funded by
the European Union and managed by the Delegation of the European Union to Montenegro. The project was implemented by the Centre
for Democracy and Human Rights (CEDEM) in partnership with AIRE Center from London. The project lasted from 1st February until
1st of August 2012. Final Report on Human Rights on monitoring of 12 fundamental human rights through a number of monitored cases
was presented at the conference.

The monitoring team was consisted of CEDEM`s team and 12 monitors from different non-governmental organizations from

Mr. Siniša Bjeković, legal expert, presented the Final Report on Human Rights, while Mrs. Marijana Laković, Deputy of Ombudsman,
Mrs. Blanka Radošević-Marović, Deputy Minister of Justice and Human Rights and Mr. Zoran Pažin, Montenegro’ State Agent before
the European Court of Human Rights, analyzed mechanisms of human rights protection in Montenegro and pointed to main challenges
which is Montenegro facing in this field.

The Conference was attended by representatives of diplomatic missions in Montenegro, as well as representatives of judiciary public
administration, international organizations and civil sector.
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Filip Vujanovic
President since 11 May 2003
Current situation: Montenegro is primarily a transit country for the trafficking of women and girls to Western Europe for the
purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; women and girls from the Balkans and Eastern Europe are trafficked across
Montenegro to Western European countries

Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Montenegro is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to
combat trafficking in persons in 2007; public attention to the issue of trafficking has diminished considerably in Montenegro in recent
years (20