Republic of Niger
Republique du Niger
Joined United Nations: 20 September 1960
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
Updated 07 April 2013
16,899,327 (July 2013 est.)
Prime Minister since 7 April 2011
President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a
second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes to be
elected president; a presidential election to restore civilian rule was
held 31 January 2011 with a runoff election between Issoufou
MAHAMADOU and Seini OUMAROU held on 12 March 2011
Next scheduled election: January 2016
Prime minister appointed by the president and shares some
executive responsibilities with the president
Next scheduled election: January 2016
|DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Haoussa 55.4%, Djerma Sonrai 21%, Touareg 9.3%, Peuhl 8.5%, Kanouri Manga 4.7%, other 1.2% (2001 census)
Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
Republic with 8 regions (regions, singular - region) includes 1 capital district (communite urbaine); Legal system is based on French
civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Executive: President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of
the votes to be elected president; a presidential election to restore civilian rule was held 31 January 2011 with a runoff election held
on 12 March 2011; Next election: January 2016
Legislative: Unicameral National Assembly (113 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 31 January 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
Judicial: State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel
French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Humans have lived in what is now Niger from the earliest times. 3 to 3.5 Million year old Australopithecus bahrelghazali remains
have been found in neighboring Chad. Considerable evidence indicates that about 60,000 years ago, humans inhabited what has
since become the desolate Sahara of northern Niger. Later, on what was then huge fertile grasslands, from at least 7,000 BCE there
was pastoralism, herding of sheep and goats, large settlements and pottery. Cattle were introduced to the Central Sahara (Ahaggar)
from 4,000 to 3,500 BCE. Remarkable rock paintings, many found in the Air Mountians, dated 3,500 to 2,500 BCE, portray
vegetation and animal presence rather different from modern expectations. As the Sahara dried after 2000 BCE, the north of Niger
became the desert it is today, with settlements and trade routes clinging to the Air in the north, the Kouar and shore of Lake Chad in
the west, and (apart for a scattering of oases) most people living along what is now the southern border with Nigeria and the
southwest of the country. By at least the fifth century BCE, Carthage and Egypt became terminals for West African gold, ivory, and
slaves trading salt, cloth, beads, and metal goods. With this trade, Niger was on the route between the empires of the Sahel and the
empires of the Mediterranean basin. Long before the arrival of French influence and control in the area, Niger was an important
economic crossroads, and the empires of Songhai, Mali, the Dendi Kingdom, Gao, and Kanem-Bornu, as well as a number of
Hausa states, claimed control over portions of the area. During recent centuries, the nomadic Tuareg formed large confederations,
pushed southward, and, siding with various Hausa states, clashed with the Fulani Empire of Sokoto, which had gained control of
much of the Hausa territory in the late 18th century. In the 19th century, contact with the West began when the first European
explorers--notably Mungo Park (British) and Heinrich Barth (German)--explored the area searching for the mouth of the Niger
River. Although French efforts at pacification began before 1900, dissident ethnic groups, especially the desert Tuareg, were not
subdued until 1922, when Niger became a French colony. Niger's colonial history and development parallel that of other French
West African territories. France administered her West African colonies through a governor general at Dakar, Senegal, and
governors in the individual territories, including Niger. In addition to conferring French citizenship on the inhabitants of the territories,
the 1946 French constitution provided for decentralization of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory
assemblies. A further revision in the organization of overseas territories occurred with the passage of the Overseas Reform Act (Loi
Cadre) of July 23, 1956, followed by reorganizational measures enacted by the French Parliament early in 1957. In addition to
removing voting inequalities, these laws provided for creation of governmental organs, assuring individual territories a large measure
of self-government. After the establishment of the Fifth French Republic, Niger became an autonomous state within the French
Community on December 4, 1958. Following full independence on August 3, 1960, however, membership was allowed to lapse.
For its first 14 years as an independent state, Niger was run by a single-party civilian regime under the presidency of Hamani Diori.
In 1974, a combination of devastating drought and accusations of rampant corruption resulted in a military coup which overthrew
the Diori regime. Col. Seyni Kountché and a small group of military ruled the country until Kountche's death in 1987. He was
succeeded by his Chief of Staff and cousin, Col. Ali Saibou, who released political prisoners, liberalized some of Niger's laws and
policies, and promulgated a new constitution. However, President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of
union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the
end of 1990. New political parties and civic associations sprang up, and a National Conference was convened in July 1991 to
prepare the way for the adoption of a new constitution and the holding of free and fair elections. The debate was often contentious
and accusatory, but under the leadership of Prof. André Salifou, the conference developed consensus on the modalities of a
transition government. Niger sent hundreds of troops to the Coalition forces in the Gulf War in 1991. A transition government was
installed in November 1991 to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put in place in April 1993.
While the economy deteriorated over the course of the transition, certain accomplishments stand out, including the successful
conduct of a constitutional referendum; the adoption of key legislation such as the electoral and rural codes; and the holding of
several free, fair, and nonviolent nationwide elections. Freedom of the press flourished with the appearance of several new
independent newspapers. A coalition of parties in 1993 won the Presidential election for Mahamane Ousmane the CDS party
candidate. The agreement between the parties fell apart in 1994 leading to governmental paralysis as the CDS on its own no longer
had a majority in the assembly. Ousmane dissolved the legislature and called new legislative elections, but the MNSD party won the
largest group of seats, so Ousmane was compelled to appoint Hama Amadou of the MNSD as prime minister. As the culmination
of an initiative started in 1991, the government signed peace accords in April 1995 with all Tuareg and Toubou groups that had
been leading the Tuareg Rebellion since 1990 claiming they lacked attention and resources from the central government. The
government agreed to absorb some former rebels in the military and, with French assistance, help others return to a productive
civilian life. The paralysis of government between the President and the Prime Minister who no longer agreed gave Col. Ibrahim
Baré Maïnassara a rationale to overthrow the Third Republic and depose the first democratically elected president of Niger, on
January 27, 1996. While leading a military authority that ran the government (Conseil de Salut National) during a 6-month transition
period, Baré enlisted specialists to draft a new constitution for a Fourth Republic announced in May 1996. Baré organized a
Presidential election in June 1996. He ran against four other candidates, including Ousmane. Before voting had finished, Baré
dissolved the national electoral committee and appointed another, which announced him the winner with over 50% of the votes cast.
When his efforts to justify his coup and subsequent questionable election failed to convince donors to restore multilateral and
bilateral economic assistance, a desperate Baré ignored the international embargo on Libya seeking funds for Niger's economy. In
repeated violations of basic civil liberties by the regime, opposition leaders were imprisoned; journalists often arrested, beaten, and
deported by an unofficial militia composed of police and military; and independent media offices were looted and burned with
impunity. In April 1999, Baré was assassinated in a coup led by Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké who established a transitional
National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a Fifth Republic with a French style semi-presidential
system. In votes that international observers found to be generally free and fair, the Nigerien electorate approved the new
constitution in July 1999 and held legislative and presidential elections in October and November 1999. Heading a MNSD/CDS
coalition, Tandja Mamadou won the presidency. The council transitioned to civilian rule in December 1999. The Second Tuareg
insurgency in Niger began in 2007. Tandja was deposed in a coup d'etat on 19 February 2010. The military kept their promise to
return the country to democratic civilian rule. A constitutional referendum and national elections were held. A presidential election
was held on 31 January 2011, but as no clear winner emerged, run-off elections were held on 12 March 2011. Mahamadou
Issoufou of the Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism was elected president. A parliamentary election was held at the same
time. Brigi Rafini, an ethnic Tuareg, was named Prime Minister.
Source: Wikipedia: History of Niger
Niger is a landlocked, Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's
largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes about 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 90% of the population.
Niger also has sizable reserves of oil, and oil production, refining, and exports are expected to grow significantly between 2011 and
2016. Drought, desertification, and strong population growth have undercut the economy. Niger shares a common currency, the
CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the
West African Monetary Union. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund
program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and
Growth Facility (PRGF). Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduced Niger's annual debt service
obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and
other programs geared at poverty reduction. In December 2005, Niger received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which
translated into the forgiveness of approximately US$86 million in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC.
The economy was hurt when the international community cut off non-humanitarian aid in response to TANDJA's moves to extend
his term as president. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be
sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. The government, however, has made efforts to secure a
new three-year extended credit facility with the IMF following the one that completed in 2011. Oil revenue to the government has
fallen well short of its budgeted level. Strikes risk undermining political stability. Food security remains a problem in Niger and is
exacerbated by refugees from Mali.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Niger)
Politics of Niger takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of
Niger is head of state and the Prime Minister of Niger head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is
exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The judiciary is
independent of the executive and the legislature.
The current legislature elected in December 2004 contains seven political parties. President Mamadou Tandja was re-elected in
December 2004 and reappointed Hama Amadou as Prime Minister. Mahamane Ousmane, the head of the CDS, was re-elected
President of the National Assembly (parliament) by his peers. The new second term government of the Fifth Republic took office on
30 December 2002. In August 2002, serious unrest within the military occurred in Niamey, Diffa, and Nguigmi, but the government
was able to restore order within several days. In June 2007, a no confidence vote against the government led to the fall of the Prime
Minister Hama Amadou and his ministers.
The constitution of December 1992 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996 and, again, by referendum, recised to the
current version on 18 July 1999. It restored the semi-presidential system of government of the December 1992 constitution (Third
Republic) in which the president of the republic, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, and a prime minister named by
the president share executive power. As a reflection of Niger's increasing population, the unicameral National Assembly was
expanded in 2004 to 113 deputies elected for a 5 year term under a majority system of representation. Political parties must attain
at least 5% of the vote in order to gain a seat in the legislature.
Niger's new constitution restores the semi-presidential system of government of the December 1992 constitution (Third Republic) in
which the President of the Republic is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, and a prime minister, named by the
president, share executive power however it was suspended on 19 February 2010 by the Council For the Restoration of
Democracy which toppled the government in a coup d'etat. A presidential election was held on 31 January 2011. The first round
was to be held on January 3 and the second round on January 31, but those dates were postponed to 31 January 2011 (together
with parliamentary elections) and 12 March 2011. The military kept their promise to return the country to democratic civilian rule. A
constitutional referendum and national elections were held. A presidential election was held on 31 January 2011, but as no clear
winner emerged, run-off elections were held on 12 March 2011. Mahamadou Issoufou of the Nigerien Party for Democracy and
Socialism was elected president. A parliamentary election was held at the same time. Brigi Rafini, an ethnic Tuareg, was named
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of Niger
Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is
unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that
also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees (country of origin): 53,841 (Mali - 50,714 are Malians, 3,127 are Nigeriens) (2013)
IDPs: undetermined (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg
militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence) (2012)
|HUMAN RIGHTS STATEMENTS, ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUES
|2011 Human Rights Report: Niger
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May 25, 2012
Niger is a multiparty republic. On March 14, voters elected opposition leader Issoufou Mahamadou president in a poll characterized by
international observers as generally free and fair. National Assembly elections held on January 31 were also deemed free and fair.
Issoufou replaced former interim president Salou Djibo, who had been appointed by the Supreme Council for the Restoration of
Democracy (CSRD) after it overthrew then president Mamadou Tandja in February 2010. On May 10, the Niamey Court of Appeals
ordered the release of Tandja, who had been detained since February 2010. Most former government officials also detained with Tandja
were released during the year. While civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security forces, there were instances
in which elements of the security forces acted independently of civilian control. In July members of the military were arrested for an
unsuccessful coup attempt, although details remained unclear at year’s end.
The most serious human rights problems in the country included harsh and life-threatening prison and detention center conditions,
discrimination and violence against women and children, and forced labor and caste-based slavery among some groups.
Other human rights problems included extrajudicial killings and use of excessive force by security forces. Attacks by armed groups also
resulted in deaths. Arbitrary arrest and detention, prolonged pretrial detention, and executive interference in the judiciary occurred. The
government restricted freedoms of press, association, assembly, and movement, although such incidents dramatically decreased from
previous years. Official corruption was pervasive. Female genital mutilation (FGM), trafficking in persons, and child labor occurred.
The government generally took steps to prosecute officials who committed abuses; however, impunity was a problem
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18 June 2009
COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION
Concluding observations: Niger
2. Although submitted with a significant delay, the Committee welcomes the frank and self-critical nature of the second periodic report
of the State party as well as the written replies to its list of issues (CRC/C/NER/Q/2/Add.1), and commends the fruitful dialogue held
with the high-level and multisectoral delegation, which allowed for a better understanding of the situation of children in the State party.
B. Follow-up measures and progress achieved by the State party
3. The Committee notes with appreciation the positive developments related to the implementation of the Convention, such as:
(a) Act No. 2003-05 of 13 June 2003 amending the Criminal Code and introducing new offences, including female genital mutilation,
genocide and the crime of slavery;
C. Principal subjects of concern and recommendations
1. General measures of implementation
(arts. 4, 42 and 44, para. 6, of the Convention)
Committee’s previous recommendations
5. The Committee welcomes efforts by the State party to implement the Committee’s concluding observations on the State party’s initial
report. Nevertheless, the Committee regrets that some of its concerns and recommendations have been insufficiently or only partly
addressed, including those related to the allocation of resources, the minimum age for marriage, birth registration, corporal punishment,
informal adoptions, street children, as well as child abuse and neglect.
6. The Committee urges the State party to take all necessary measures to address those recommendations from the concluding
observations of the initial report that have not yet been implemented or sufficiently implemented, and to provide adequate follow-up to the
recommendations contained in the present concluding observations on the second periodic report.
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Freedom In The World 2012
Political Rights: 3
Civil Liberties: 4
Status: Partly Free
In early 2011, Niger held successful legislative and presidential elections that brought longtime opposition leader Mahamadou Issoufou
and his Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism to power. The international community declared the elections free and fair, and
Niger experienced a significant democratic transition after a military coup had overthrown former president Mamadou Tandja in
In February 2010, the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy (CSRD), a military junta led by Major Salou Djibo, placed
Tandja under house arrest, suspended the constitution, and dissolved all government institutions. The junta appointed a transitional
government, which created the National Consultative Council, a 131-member body tasked with drafting a new constitution and electoral
code, and a Transition Constitutional Council to replace the Constitutional Court. Despite these institutional advances and the designation
of a civilian prime minister, Djibo remained the de facto head of state without any genuine checks on his power. In a referendum held in
October 2010, 90 percent of participating voters approved the new constitution, amid a turnout of approximately 52 percent.
Presidential, legislative, and municipal elections were held on January 31, 2011. The junta had forbidden its members and representatives
of the transitional government from running for office. In the 113-seat National Assembly, the Nigerien Party for Democracy and
Socialism (PNDS), led by longtime opposition leader Mahamadou Issoufou, took the most seats, with 37. The MNSD—led by former
prime minister Seini Oumarou—placed second with 26 seats, while Amadou’s Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation
(MDN) took 25.
In the first round of the presidential election, Issoufou and Oumarou emerged as the top two candidates, winning 36 percent and 23
percent, respectively. Amadou, who placed third with 20 percent, later declared his support for Issoufou. Issoufou claimed victory with
58 percent of the vote in a March runoff election. Both the presidential and legislative elections were declared free and fair by
international observers, despite minor administrative problems. In the local elections, the PNDS and MNSD won the majority of positions
across the country. In May, the Niamey Court of Appeals ordered that Tandja be released from prison.
Already one of the world’s poorest and least developed countries, Niger has been ravaged by extreme food shortages since the 2009–10
drought. In January 2011, the United Nations warned of an impending food crisis in Niger, where acute malnutrition is already rampant.
By the end of the year, the United Nations reported that over half of all villages in Niger were in a food crisis, while the World Food
Programme urged greater international assistance for the approximately 1 million people at risk. As of 2011, the United States and other
donors were supplying humanitarian and non-humanitarian assistance to Niger, the latter having been suspended since 2009.
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Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights
23 May 2012
Annual Report- Niger
Two political leaders and 10 military officers were detained for several months without trial. Niger accepted high-ranking Libyan officials
“on humanitarian grounds” while stating that it would respect its commitments to the International Criminal Court if any official named in
arrest warrants entered its territory. Several foreign nationals were taken hostage or remained held by al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb
(AQIM) and two were killed during a failed rescue operation.
In March, Mahamadou Issoufou was elected President, ending the interim government led by a military junta which had ousted President
Mamadou Tandja in 2010.
As a result of the unrest and armed conflict in Libya, more than 200,000 nationals from Niger returned home, creating a difficult
Clashes in the north of Niger were reported throughout the year between security forces and armed elements of AQIM. The Niger
government stated that AQIM was obtaining arms smuggled from Libya. Niger announced in May that it would strengthen security co-
operation with Mali, Mauritania and Algeria. In November, the Niger armed forces destroyed a convoy of heavy weapons on its way
from Libya to Mali.
Detention without trial
Two political leaders and 10 military officers were detained for several months. At the end of the year at least three remained held
In January, former President Tandja, who had been under house arrest since he was ousted from power in 2010, was charged with
embezzlement and imprisoned. Provisionally released in May, he had not been tried by the end of the year. The former Minister of
Interior, Albadé Abouba, who had been under house arrest since February 2010, was released without charge in March.
In July, 10 military officers accused of plotting against the authorities were arrested and detained for several days before being released.
In September, two high-ranking officials, Colonel Abdoulaye Badié and Lieutenant-Colonel Hamadou Djibo, were arrested and accused of
writing and distributing a leaflet criticizing the promotion of some military officers. Both were released without charge in November.
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Letter to ICC Prosecutor on the Court's Relationship with Africa
November 15, 2012
We, the undersigned African civil society organizations and international nongovernmental organizations with a presence in Africa, write
to congratulate you on your recent appointment as Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The Office of the Prosecutor
(OTP) is a cornerstone of the ICC and we have confidence that it will benefit from your skills, experience, and demeanor. We are
looking forward to your leadership and guidance in the work of the office.
As you know, a critical challenge for the OTP, and the ICC more generally, is its relationship with Africa, and particularly the African
Union (AU). Many of our organizations campaigned for the establishment of the ICC. Over the past several years we also have engaged
in collective advocacy to counter backlash against the ICC from some African leaders, which has emanated largely from the AU
following ICC arrest warrants for the Sudanese president. Our organizations, which are based in many of Africa’s capitals, have issued
group declarations, news releases, and analyses on shared concerns such as the need for an ICC liaison office with the AU in Addis
Ababa and AU decisions calling for non-cooperation with the ICC. We have worked closely with African media to draw attention to
anticipated travel by al-Bashir to countries that should arrest him, which has sometimes contributed to canceled visits, and to provide a
more balanced view on Africa’s relationship with the ICC in news stories.
Despite tensions between the ICC and the AU, there also have been recent indications of the more positive view of the ICC among
African governments. As you know, Malawi’s new president, Joyce Banda, made it clear in May 2012 that Malawi would fulfill its ICC
obligations and arrest al-Bashir if he attended the African Union Summit there. Other states—including Botswana, South Africa, Burkina
Faso, and Niger—also have reaffirmed publicly the need to arrest ICC suspects on their territories.
We believe these developments reinforce that opportunities exist for the OTP to work with African governments on promoting a
principled, supportive relationship between the AU and the ICC. In this context, we would like to make several recommendations for
your work, which we believe will help promote the court’s effective functioning and work in Africa.
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PRIME MINISTER, HEAD OF GOVERNMENT CAMPAIGN CHAIRMAN AND THE REGISTRATION OF ALL CHILDREN
BACK TO SCHOOL: CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR BACK EFFECTIVE OCTOBER 1 NEXT
At this turning point leading to the 2012-2013 school year, the primary set for October 1, the Ministry of National Education and its
technical and financial partners have initiated the organization of a major national campaign on "the registration and return of all children
in school. " The launching ceremony was held yesterday at the Palais des Congrès de Niamey, under the patronage of the Prime
Minister, Head of Government, HE. Brigi Rafini. On this occasion the Prime Minister gave a speech (which we deliver the below
After welcoming remarks by the Secretary General of the Niamey region, host this national event of great significance, the Resident
Representative of UNICEF, Mr. Guido Cornale addressed the audience who made the trip the Congress. The leader of the education
sector TFP progress and noted the significant progress achieved by the Niger in the field of education in recent years, both quantitatively
Mr. Cornale regretted, however, the phenomenon of school dropout, non-inclusion or under inclusion of children who scored last year.
This is an unfortunate situation, the reasons are cyclical rather than structural. Recognizing the efforts and commitment of the
government for the Nigerian school through the construction of infrastructure and the recruitment of staff, the resident representative of
UNICEF justified the abandonment by the various crises facing our country including the security situation in northern Mali, the Libyan
crisis, the food crisis born of poor agricultural season and previous floods have forced people to move from their places of residence.
For Guido, children out of schools are in danger and it is urgent to take measures for their return and for enrollment, on the one hand to
their right and on the other hand, their provide an opportunity for a better life "school is a shelter, but it is mostly a place of learning," he
The national campaign aims to build a solid Niger where we take care of every child, and every girl has access to a quality education.
Speaking of girls, the leader of the Education Cluster noted with regret that two girls go to school and only one in five high school
arrives in our country where half the population is female.
Speaking in turn, the Minister Ibrahim Ali Mariama Elhadj, reiterated the reactivation of the Emergency Education Cluster intervened
there are eight (8) months and tribulations experienced by the Nigerian school last year when the government sought partner support to
stop the bleeding that has affected the educational system in some regions. Minister of National Education, Literacy and National
Languages promotion has also referred to the crises that have seriously disrupted the school year 2011 - 2012 to know the bad crop,
events Mali and Libya . The recent floods have caused massive displacement of families in which many of them found refuge in schools.
According to the Minister that a total of 861 classes with 600 Niamey were occupied. She hoped that the campaign will "find appropriate
solutions to the economic situation." Minister Ali Mariama expressed his belief that the country will register and bring all children to
school while ensuring that his department has taken all steps to start effective October 1 during the entire territory.
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Public debate on the abolition of the death penalty in Niger
18 October 2012
Mr. Diallo, Djibril Abarchi of ANDDH, Imam Salah Ben Moussa Almoustapha of CONICOPEM and Pierre David, Cultural Attaché
Mr. Diallo, Djibril Abarchi of ANDDH, Imam Salah Ben Moussa Almoustapha of CONICOPEM and Pierre David, Cultural Attaché
As part of the global campaign by France in favor of the universal abolition of the death penalty, the Embassy of France in Niger held on
October 10 at CNBC Jean Rouch, a framework for debate involving civil society, lawyers and legal issues surrounding the death penalty
today in Niger.
For the record, the death penalty is no longer applied since 1976, but is still in the Penal Code. After an address by the Ambassador of
France, Mr. Christophe Bouchard, recalling in particular the French position and an overview of the abolition in the sub-region, the
screening of the film An abolitionist (2001) Joel Calmettes dedicated to M . Robert Badinter, has given way to a roundtable co-moderated
by the Coalition of Nigerian human rights in the presence of Pr Abarchi Djibril, a law professor at the University of Niamey (also
Vice-President of the Association of Nigerian human rights), the lawyer practicing in the Niger Me Halima Diallo Sambaré and Imam Ben
Salah, preacher and former minister of religious affairs.
Among a large audience were representatives of religions in Niger (Muslim, Catholic and Evangelist), a former Minister of Justice, two
former presidents, President of ACAT (Action by Christians for the Abolition of Torture) , the Director of Human Rights at the Ministry
of Justice of Niger, Niger magistrates union, law students ... The two-hour debate brought together all the sensibilities of the question
Niger: the supporters of penalty and its application, supporters of the status quo, abolitionists.
The legal paradox was highlighted by Professor Abarchi, lamenting that Nigerian lawyers never did prisl'initiative plead the
unconstitutionality of the death penalty. Counsel, for his part, called for a status quo candidate in Niger, the death penalty is a deterrent.
Note that the Nigerian Bar Association does not have a unified position on the issue. Religious arguments reiterated the sanctity of human
life, but the trends are still in favor of abolition. It seems important to continue in the coming months this debate by Nigerian issues in
regional experiences, including Senegal, which abolished the death penalty in 2004 and Benin (July 2012).
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MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
23 February 2013
ANNUAL REPORT presented by Patrick CHANU President
If the year 2012 was once again a difficult year emotionally, with the fourth consecutive year the loss of a friend, very expensive at all,
but "my little brother" Didier, she was also at the level of organization and management, the void left by Alain Didier and could not be
filled .... However, we have always believed in better days. And our friends Assaka-Niger Djibril Rabdoullah, Gagère, as well as the
entire population of the village showed us they intend entirely worthy of the trust and all the achievements that have been made this year
are the hallmark of this total confidence, All of you, friends, friends, members, donors, benefactors, you have given us equal confidence
and even increased, since at cumulative donations (Contributions, donations, participation in Christmas Markets Operation
Christmas "Super U") we reach this year a total (record) of 39426.92.
So we could maintain our financial support to the school in Assakamour particular and children in general, thanks to your generosity and
faithfulness. Achievements that have been made this year, funded with the support of various partners, the result of five years of work,
and patience are also brand the seriousness of our friends there, and Djibril Rabdoullah, this year the number of members paying a fee is
decreasing (152 in 2012, 168 in 2011) but the number of donors, despite the economic crisis, rose to go from 223 to 262 .... And above
all, what we find admirable is that echo some of you are around them by creating small clubs to support Assaka:
"The support team of Gex", "The Colour Circles of the Fireflies, "" Handy-Cap on
Adventure ".... not to mention the most famous clubs, Rotary Annemasse, Nantua and Rhône-Alpes region, which we follow for several
Assaka will still live long, with lots of projects and beautiful creations for our friends Assakamour. Niger is expected this year 2013 to a
new food crisis due to much to the general situation in the country is considered "State of War." Our heartfelt thoughts are with our
friends gone too soon, Kriss, Hama, and Alain Didier ..... and all members "anonymous" in association with which we sometimes forged
strong links ...
As we hope, with the new blood and young people who arrive in the association, Sophie as "Treasurer" and then we will occasionally
Samuel few services, we can glimpse the year 2013 with confidence.
Assakamour children and the entire population of the village, join us for you say "a" Huge Thank you, "thank you for your friendship,
your moral support, we had much need this year 2012, your confidence, your generosity, and brotherhood ... devotre We have again
and again you more than ever .... ...
REPORT presented by Patrick CHANU President
Schooling is and remains our main objective and we are pleased to see that each year the number of children increases and educational
outcomes are still among the best in the region.
The school Assakamour is regularly cited as an example. The number of children schooling is expected to increase, because in the space
of three years the population has grown from Assakamour 780 inhabitants in 910 ... This is partly due to the return of expatriates in
Libya and then also to a decrease in mortality in the village.
This year has seen the completion of several projects in preparation for the last 5 years:
Dikes to protect gardens (total 6 km from dam)
-The sinking and securing 20 wells gardeners
These two achievements have helped expand arable land (190ha), and provide work and substantial income to the villagers ...
-For the school, the construction of two new buildings, and the "famous" latrines
Thank you to the various partners who have trusted Assaka-NIGER, Djibril at Rabdoullah in terms Gagère to conduct all these projects ...
US-African Development Foundation: Paul Olson
Solidarity-Trégor Niger: President, Fernand LEDUC
Centre for Economic Studies and Social West Africa
ESCWA, Vincent Charpentier
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Current situation: Niger is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for forced labor and sexual
exploitation; caste-based slavery practices, rooted in ancestral master-slave relationships, continue in isolated areas of the country;
children are trafficked within Niger for forced begging, forced labor in gold mines, domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, and
possibly for forced labor in agriculture and stone quarries; women and children from neighboring states are trafficked to and through
Niger for domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, forced labor in mines and on farms, and as mechanics and welders; to a lesser
extent, Nigerien women and children are recruited from Niger and transported to Nigeria, North Africa, the Middle East, and
Europe for domestic servitude and sex trafficking
Tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Government of Niger does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of
trafficking; the government has not shown evidence of increasing efforts to address human trafficking; however, Niger was granted a
waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would
constitute making significant efforts to meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is devoting sufficient
resources to that plan; during the year, the government took some steps to finalize a national legal framework to combat trafficking
and the president spoke publicly about the government's commitment to pursue vigorous law enforcement action against slavery,
child prostitution, exploitive child begging, and other forms of human trafficking (2012)
President since 7 April 2011