Republic of San Marino
Repubblica di San Marino
Joined United Nations: 2 March 1992
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
Updated 04 March 2013
32,140 (July 2012 est.)
Secretary of State For Foreign and Political
Affairs since 03 December 2008
Co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and
General Council for a six-month term; election last held in 17
Next scheduled election: March 2013
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
Secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the
Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last
held 11 November 2012
Next scheduled election: November 2017
|DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Republic with 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Legal system is based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Executive: Co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Grand and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in
17 September 2012 (next to be held in March 2013); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Grand and
General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)
Legislative: Unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote
to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
Judicial: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
The history of San Marino is both very European and typical for the Italian Peninsula, and yet helps explain its unusual
characteristics as the sole remaining Italian city-state. San Marino, the world's fifth-smallest state, also claims to be the world's
oldest republic. According to tradition, San Marino was founded in AD 301 (alternative version about A.D. 350 ) when a Christian
stonemason named Marinus the Dalmatian, later venerated as Saint Marinus, after whom the country is named, fled from the
Dalmatian island of Arbe to escape the persecutions under Diocletian, and settled in Monte Titano to ply his stonecutting and spread
Christianity. Marinus hid on the peak of Mount Titano (the highest of San Marino's seven hills) and founded a small community
following Christian beliefs. The owner of the land, Felicissima, a sympathetic lady of Rimini, bequeathed it to the little Christian
community of mountaineers, recommending to them to remain always united. It is certain that the region had been inhabited since
prehistoric times, although evidence of existence on Mount Titano dates back only to the Middle Ages. That evidence comes from a
monk named Eugippio, who reports in several documents going back to 511 that another monk lived here. In memory of the
stonecutter, the land was renamed "Land of San Marino", and was finally changed to its present-day name, "Republic of San
Marino". Later papers from the 9th century report a well organized, opened and proud community: the writings report moreover
that the close bishop, already at the time, was ruling this territory. In the Lombard age, San Marino was a fief of the dukes of
Spoleto, but the free commune dates to the tenth century. In the tenth century the abbots of the monastery were under the civil
government, but they soon freed themselves and formed a free commune. The original government structure was composed of a
self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family (as in the original Roman Senate, the
Patres). In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) were established to be the joint heads of state. The state's
earliest statutes date back to 1263. The Holy See confirmed the ancient independence of San Marino in 1291. Because San
Marino decided not to engage in any war, it remained fairly peaceful. But to prevent other nations from attacking, it was seen as
necessary to construct the Three Towers of San Marino. For more information on the subject, see that article. In quick succession
the lords of Montefeltro, the Malatesta of Rimini, and the lords of Urbino attempted to conquer the little town, but without success.
The land area of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463, at which time the republic entered into an alliance against
Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a result, Pope Pius II gave San Marino some castles
and the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino and Serravalle. Later that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own
accord. Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged. San Marino adopted its written constitution on October 8,
1600. San Marino still faced many potential threats. Thus a treaty of protection was signed in 1602 with the Pope, which came into
force in 1631. San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries three times in its history, each for only a short period of time.
Two of these periods were in the feudal era. In 1503, Cesare Borgia occupied the republic until his death several months later. On
October 17, 1739, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, legate (papal governor) of Ravenna who in 1739, aiding certain rebels, possibly
contrary to the orders of Pope Clement XII, used military force to occupy the country, imposed a new constitution, and endeavored
to force the Sanmarinesi to submit to the government of the Pontifical States. However, civil disobedience was used to protest this,
and clandestine notes sent to the Pope to obtain justice were answered by papal recognition of San Marino's rights, which restored
them to independence. The state was recognized by Napoleon by the Treaty of Tolentino, in 1797 and by the Congress of Vienna
in 1815. On 1825 and 1853 new attempts to submit it to the Papal States failed; and its wish to be left out of Garibaldi's Italian
unification in the mid-nineteenth century was granted, since it had offered a safe refuge to numerous supporters of unification in
earlier years. After the unification of the Kingdom of Italy a treaty of 1862 confirmed San Marino's independence. It was revised in
1872. The last occupation of the country was during 1944. San Marino stayed neutral. German forces used the country to retreat
through, and they were followed by Allied forces. The Allied armies only remained in occupation for as long as militarily necessary,
which turned out to be only a few weeks, although 60 people were killed. After the war, San Marino became the first country in
Western Europe to be ruled by a communist party (the San Marinese Communist Party, in coalition with the San Marinese Socialist
Party) through democratic elections. The coalition lasted from 1945 to 1957. San Marino is the only surviving Italian city-state. Like
Andorra, Liechtenstein and Monaco, it appears an anachronism, a reminder of the times when Europe — particularly Germany,
Italy and the Pyrenees — was made up of tiny political units, sometimes extending no further than a cannon could fire from a city’s
walls. Apart from the Vatican City (whose development followed a different course), it is the only one which is completely
surrounded by a single other country in Europe. Various treaties of friendship have been signed with Italy since the latter’s
unification, but San Marino proudly asserts its independence where possible. Women gained voting rights in 1960. Having joined
the Council of Europe as a full member in 1988, San Marino held the rotating chair of the organisation during the first half of 1990.
San Marino became a member of the United Nations in 1992. In 2002 it signed a treaty with the OECD, agreeing to greater
transparency in banking and taxation matters to help to combat tax evasion.
Source: Wikipedia: History of San Marino
San Marino's economy relies heavily on its banking industry and on the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics,
furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP.
The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies
much of the food San Marino consumes. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and
low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino does not
issue public debt securities, and when necessary, finances its deficits by drawing down deposits at its central bank. San Marino's
economy encounted setbacks in recent years as a result of weak demand from Italy - which accounts for 90% of its export market
- and financial sector consolidation. Italy's implementation in October 2009 of a tax amnesty to repatriate untaxed funds held
abroad has resulted in financial outflows from San Marino to Italy worth more than $4.5 billion. These outflows have contributed to
a consolidation in the financial sector. Bank difficulties, combined with a money-laundering scandal at San Marino's largest financial
institution and with the recent global economic downturn, have led to a deep recession, a growing budget deficit, and a higher level
of debt. The government has adopted measures to counter the economic downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. San
Marino also continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members and international standards. In September
2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San
Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. San Marino's government continues to work with
Italy to ratify a financial information exchange agreement, seen by businesses and investors as crucial to strengthening the economic
relationship between the two countries.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select San Marino)
The legislature of the republic is the Grand and General Council (Consiglio grande e generale). The Council is a unicameral
legislature which has 60 members with elections occurring every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine
administrative districts. These districts (townships) correspond to the old parishes of the republic. Citizens eighteen years or older
are eligible to vote. Besides general legislation, the Grand and General Council approves the budget and elects the Captains Regent,
the State Congress, the Council of Twelve, the Advising Commissions, and the Government Unions. The Council also has the
power to ratify treaties with other countries. The Council is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15
councilors which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on their way to being presented on the
floor of the Council.
The electoral law was based on proportional representation from 1945 to 2007. Since then, it is based on the electoral system of
Italian municipalities.Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from
opposing parties so there is a balance of power. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on
April 1 and October 1 in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the Captains'
activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.
The practice of dual heads of state, as well as the frequent re-election of same, are derived directly from the customs of the Roman
Republic. The Council is equivalent to the Roman Senate; the Captains Regent, to the consuls of ancient Rome.
The main issues confronting the current government include economic and administrative problems related to San Marino's status as
a close financial and trading partner with Italy while at the same time remaining separated from the European Union (EU). The other
priority issue will be to increase the transparency and efficiency in parliament and in relations among parliament, cabinet, and the
Captains Regent. San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The two main parties are the Sammarinese Christian Democratic
Party (PDCS) and the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD, a merger of the Socialist Party of San Marino and the Party of
Democrats) in addition to several other smaller parties. Due to the small size of San Marino and its low population, it is difficult for
any party to gain a pure majority and most of the time the government is run by a coalition.
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of San Marino
|HUMAN RIGHTS STATEMENTS, ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUES
|2011 Human Rights Report: San Marino
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May 25, 2012
The Republic of San Marino is a multiparty democracy. The popularly elected unicameral Great and General Council (parliament) selects
two of its members to serve as captains regent (co-chiefs of state). They preside over meetings of the council and the Congress of State
(cabinet), which has no more than 10 other members (secretaries of state) selected by the council. Parliamentary elections, last held in
2008, were considered free and fair. Security forces reported to civilian authorities.
There were no widespread or systemic human rights abuses.
The government took steps to prosecute officials accused of abuses, and impunity was not a problem. There were some reports of
violence against women, and government health and safety standards were not enforced in the informal labor sector.
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31 July 2008
HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE
Geneva, 7-25 July 2008
CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 40 OF THE COVENANT
Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee
REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO
2. The Committee welcomes the submission of the second periodic report of San Marino and the opportunity it presents to resume the
dialogue with the State party after 18 years. It is grateful to the State party for the written replies (CCPR/C/SMR/Q/2/Add.1 and Add.2)
provided in advance to the list of issues and for the additional information provided during the consideration of the report. It regrets,
however, the lack of sufficient information in the written materials on the practical implementation of the Covenant.
B. Positive aspects
3. The Committee welcomes the legislative and policy developments on various issues concerning disability, which enabled the State
party to ratify on 29 January 2008 the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.
4. The Committee observes that the State party has resumed dialogue with a number of treaty-bodies and notes its efforts to submit its
C. Principal subjects of concern and recommendations
5. While by virtue of Law No. 36 of 26 February 2002, “Regularly signed and implemented international agreements on the protection of
human rights and freedoms shall prevail over domestic legislation in case of conflict” (article 1, paragraph 1, Declaration of the Citizens’
Rights), the exact status of the Covenant and the Optional Protocol in domestic law remains unclear, in particular in contrast to the
status of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Furthermore, the relationship
between the Covenant and the Declaration of the Citizens’ Rights and other parts of the constitutional order remains unclear (article 2).
The State party should clarify the exact status of the Covenant and the Optional Protocol in domestic law, as well as the relationship
between the Covenant and the Declaration of the Citizens’ Rights and other parts of the constitutional order, so as to ensure full
implementation of all Covenant rights in all circumstances. In particular, the State party should clarify whether a party to pending judicial
proceedings may turn to the Guarantors’ Panel on the constitutionality of rules and claim that a national law is in conflict with the
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Freedom In The World 2012 Report
Political Rights Score: 1
Civil Liberties Score: 1
In 2011, the government canceled a referendum on joining the European Union (EU) in spite of popular support for becoming an EU
member state. In a move to improve economic transparency, a law mandating greater cooperation with foreign governments that request
financial information was adopted in July. In September, the government voted to establish a commission to fight organized crime.
In June 2008, the left-wing governing coalition—consisting of the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD), the Popular Alliance of
Democrats (AP), the United Left (SU), and the new Democrats of the Center party (DdC)—collapsed when the AP withdrew its
delegates. The move forced the Great and General Council, San Marino’s legislature, to call early elections for November. In that poll,
the center-right Pact for San Marino coalition—composed of the San Marino Christian Democratic Party (PDCS), the AP, the Freedom
List, and the Sammarinese Union of Moderates—won 54 percent of the vote and 35 of the 60 seats in the legislature, with 22 seats going
to the PDCS.
In July 2011, San Marino furthered its efforts to shed its image as a financially corrupt country when the government voted in favor of a
law that would require the republic to comply with foreign governments’ requests for financial and banking information. The law would
allow San Marino to offer information unilaterally, in compliance with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
In March, the government canceled a referendum on joining the European Union (EU), despite popular support for accession. In June,
the government chose to push for stronger adherence to EU standards without becoming a full-fledged EU member or giving the people
the opportunity to vote in a referendum.
San Marino is an electoral democracy. The 60 members of the Great and General Council, the unicameral legislature, are elected every
five years by proportional representation. Executive power rests with the 10-member Congress of State (cabinet), which is headed by
two captains regent. As the joint heads of state, the captains regent are elected every six months by the Great and General Council from
among its own members. Although there is no official prime minister, the secretary of state for foreign and political affairs is regarded as
the head of government; Antonella Mularoni was elected to the post in December 2008. Under changes made to the electoral law in
2008, the winning coalition must capture a majority of 50 percent plus 1 and at least 30 of the 60 parliamentary seats.
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Suggested recommendations to states considered in the seventh round of Universal Periodic Review, February 2010
1 December 2009
Recommendations to the government of San Marino
International Criminal Court and other human rights treaties
* To accede to the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court and to implement it in national law;
* To accede to the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance and to implement it in
* To accede to the 1968 Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity.
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International: Cluster Bomb Ban Takes Effect
Convention Becomes Binding International Law on August 1
July 29, 2010
(Washington, DC) - Countries that have not signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions should join without delay, Human Rights Watch
said today. The convention takes effect on August 1, 2010, becoming binding international law.
"August 1 is the start of the formal life of the treaty and the end of the legitimacy of this indiscriminate weapon that has caused so much
civilian suffering," said Steve Goose, Arms Division director at Human Rights Watch. "The stigma against cluster munitions is now so
strong that no nation should ever use them again."
The convention was negotiated in Dublin in May 2008 and opened for signature in Oslo in December 2008. To date, 107 governments
have signed the convention, of which 37 have ratified.
The Convention on Cluster Munitions completely prohibits the use, production, and trade of cluster munitions, requires destruction of
stockpiled cluster munitions within eight years, clearance of cluster munition-contaminated areas within ten years, and assistance to
affected communities and cluster munition survivors. On August 1, its provisions become fully and legally binding on all countries that
have both signed and ratified.
Ratification enables countries to participate as full states parties to the convention at its First Meeting of States Parties to be held in
Vientiane, Laos from November 8 to 12.
"Nations that remain outside this treaty are missing out on the most significant advance in disarmament of the past decade," Goose said.
"If governments care enough about humanitarian law and protecting civilians from the deadly effects of armed conflict, they will join
Many former users, producers, and stockpilers of cluster munitions have joined the Convention on Cluster Munitions, as have many
contaminated countries. But several key countries still remain outside, including Brazil, China, India, Israel, Pakistan, South Korea,
Russia, and the United States.
The Bush administration did not participate in the development or negotiation of the convention. In July 2008, the Pentagon announced a
new policy stating that by the end of 2018, the US will no longer use cluster munitions that have a failure rate of more than one percent -
in essence banning all but a tiny fraction of the existing arsenal. The Obama administration has not reviewed US policy on cluster
munitions or the convention.
"The US has already acknowledged that cluster munitions cause unacceptable harm to civilians. It should not wait another eight years to
stop using cluster munitions; it should ban them now," Goose said.
Cluster munitions can be fired by artillery and rocket systems or dropped by aircraft, and typically explode in the air and send dozens,
even hundreds, of tiny bomblets indiscriminately over an area the size of a football field. Cluster submunitions often fail to explode on
initial impact, leaving duds that act like landmines and pose danger to civilians.
Human Rights Watch is a founding member of the international Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) and serves as its co-chair.
Starting in Laos and New Zealand, campaigners in more than 50 countries are marking the entry into force of the convention with
celebratory "beat the drum to ban cluster bombs" events including drumming sessions, film screenings, panel discussions, football
games, photograph exhibitions, and other activities.
See the list of worldwide events: www.stopclustermunitions.org/august1
The 37 governments that have ratified the convention are: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Croatia, Denmark, Ecuador,
Fiji, France, Germany, Holy See, Ireland, Japan, Laos, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Macedonia FYR, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Mexico, Moldova,
Montenegro, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Samoa, San Marino, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Spain, Seychelles, United Kingdom,
Uruguay, and Zambia.
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H.E. Ms. Antonella Mularoni, Prime Minister
28 September 2012
ANTONELLA MULARONI, Minister of Foreign and Political Affairs, with functions of Prime Minister of San Marino, said her country
had always believed in the power of dialogue, democracy and respect for others as basis for peaceful coexistence among peoples.
Referring to recent attacks on Western diplomatic missions, she strongly condemned any form of violence. “We don’t believe that
violence is the right answer when someone feels hurt in his personal beliefs or opinions. Human life must be always above everything
and everyone,” she said, emphasizing that the apt theme of this session came at a time characterized by ever-increasing and bloody
In this vein, the United Nations role had become ever more fundamental, making the reform process crucial for future global stability,
she said, including revitalizing the General Assembly, the Organization’s most democratic body and sometimes the only forum where a
small State could express its opinions. Assembly reform was key to strengthening the global governance architecture and the process
should include its political role and authority, as defined in the United Nations Charter. “The General Assembly should not be limited to
that of a mere body where resolutions are adopted,” she said. “On the contrary, it should be a forum for exchange of ideas and debate,
where solutions can be found to today’s challenges and where a global consensus on issues of common interest can be reached.”
Turning to the financial crisis, she said the response from the Group of 20 Summit and their central banks had sidestepped the worst
affects, but the situation remained precarious and many developed countries would experience stagnation or recession, she said.
Increased food prices had contributed to higher poverty rates and caused increasingly violent social tensions, as the crisis had become a
global challenge that needed new strategies and a sense of solidarity among countries and people. The session’s thematic debate on the
state of the world’s economy should be repeated annually, at least until the crisis had been overcome, she said. “This organization should
play a leadership role in the promotion of fair and inclusive growth, sustainable development and elimination of poverty and hunger,” she
Covering a range of security issues, she first emphasized the need for reform to ensure an enlarged, more representative, transparent and
efficient Security Council. Over the last few years, some new bloody and violent conflicts had broken out. The world had also assisted a
massive popular uprising across North Africa and the Middle East, where young people were at the forefront of the Arab revolution. The
world must support them in their struggle for democracy, liberty and social justice, she said. Regarding the Syrian conflict, she
condemned atrocities taking place and hoped the Council would soon reach an agreement on how to settle the crisis. The Assembly’s
commitment to the crisis reflected an important mission: to keep peace worldwide and ensure respect for freedoms and human rights.
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TRANSLATED FROM ITALIAN BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
REGENCY OF THE REPUBLIC
MESSAGE ON THE OCCASION OF REGENCY ECC.MA
CELEBRATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF MEMORY
San Marino, 27 January 2013/1712 d.F.R.
Today, January 27th marks the celebration of the International Day of Memory dedicated to the victims of the Holocaust.
The choice of the day recalls the entry of Soviet troops in one of the concentration camps of the toughest regime, the Polish town of
Auschwitz, revealing to the world the way to do pain and humiliation experienced by millions of women and men Jews and many others,
innocent human beings, brutally murdered in the Nazi death camps, in complete disregard of the right of every human being.
It 'important that the memory of those horrors remain alive to counter the risk of oblivion now that, with the passage of time, witnesses
of those tragic events are disappearing, just as it is important to reiterate in a firm and unequivocal rejection diogni form of revisionism
and denial of the Holocaust.
It 'important to remember, but also seek to know and understand in order to make that the tragedy experienced by millions of them can
be re human teaching and a warning to the formation of consciences and the identity of future generations.
We must guard the memory looking to the future and not only to the past because - as written by Primo Levi -
"What happened may return" absurd and unthinkable for it to appear. The tragedy of World War II, and especially the Holocaust have
indeed profoundly marked our civilization putting a strain on the heritage values, democracy and tolerance that has marked the history of
We must not therefore cease to reflect and ask ourselves how it was possible that, in the very heart of Europe and at the height of its
civilization, has able to assert such a barbaric act.
Our focus and our attention must therefore be directed to the proper storage and efficient transmission of this memory to be able to
perform the task educating every generation has a duty to that inform the next.
Memory to continue, to pass from generation to generation, it needs to be refreshed constantly keeping alive next to remember the
multitude of Jews who were victims of the Holocaust, even the memory of the Righteous, dicoloro, and there were a few who they did
their best to save at least some of them.
In this regard, we express our appreciation for the growing interest of scholars and researchers for the reception and protection that our
small but great community was able to ensure that many Jews, thereby helping to keep alive, even in those dark years, the ideals of
humanity and solidarity which has marked the long history of our Republic.
There is also pleased to welcome to emphasize the wide range of initiatives taking place in our country to commemorate the many
innocent victims and remember the significance of this event involving the world of education, culture and information.
Today we have a duty to teach, promote, defend and promote the ideals of freedom, tolerance, and respect disolida varieties that are the
best remedy against all sorts of discrimination between the standing of individuals and nations.
Today we formulate the hope that this commitment can be more shared humanity with the belief that the International Day of Memory
can contribute to this task.
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TRANSLATED FROM ITALIAN BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
Pro Kids. November 20 International Day of Children's Rights
published Tuesday, November 20, 2012
November 20th WORLD DAY OF THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN
We often hear of the Rights of Boys and Girls. Perhaps not everyone knows that the final recognition of the child as a subject of law,
and not only taken care of, is relatively recent acquisition. The General Assembly of the United Nations in New York has signed the
Convention on the Rights of the Child November 20, 1989.
On the occasion of this important signature, on November 20 of each year we celebrate the World Day for the Rights of the Child.
Too often, however, in celebrating these occasions you neglect to remember that where a right is enshrined elsewhere comes a duty.
Speaking of children's rights and thus implies necessarily draw attention to DUTIES OF ADULTS ABOUT CHILDHOOD.
In our country, this year, the anniversary falls on the eve of the inauguration of the Great and General Council of the XXVIII legislature.
This coincidence gives us the opportunity to invite all 60 directors who sit on the Board of tomorrow, always keeping in mind to work in
their free and informed choices-- "the best interests of the child", in keeping with the provisions of the same Convention, ratified by the
Republic of San Marino with Decree 116 of 18/09/1991.
In this and in the full conviction that operate in the interests of children also want to say to work for a better San Marino, clean, honest,
able to guarantee children a decent future for today's citizens tomorrow, we strongly encourage all Directors to deepen awareness of the
Convention in question, to impress upon his memory his key points, to let themselves be permeated by the spirit of the fund necessary to
guide any future political action.
The Association Pro Kids, in wishing all children, San Marino and not, he could always feel protected in their fundamental rights, will not
spare anyone criticism and encouragement, so that the commitment of all this may be oriented in the right direction, aiming for
excellence in order to be suitable for each child.
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Captain Regent Teodoro Lonfernini
Co-Chief of State since 1 October 2012
Captain Regent Denise Gronzetti
Co-Chief of State since 1 October 2012