SUDAN
Republic of Sudan
Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
Joined United Nations: 12 November 1956
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 05 November 2012
CAPITAL
POPULATION
CHIEF OF STATE
SELECTION PROCESS
Khartoum
34,206,710
note: includes the population of South Sudan (8,260,490); demographic
data includes South Sudan (July 2012 est.)
Umar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir
President since 16 October 1993
Al-Bashir assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary
Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and
served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime
minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he
was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by
popular vote for the first time in March 1996; election last held
11-15 April 2010; next to be held in 2015
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
Ali Osman Taha
First Vice President since 20 September 2005
According to the Sudanese Constitution the President is both the
Chief of State and Head of Government
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
ETHNIC GROUPS
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
RELIGIONS
Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
GOVERNMENT
STRUCTURE
Federal republic ruled by the National Congress Party the (NCP), which came to power by military coup in 1989; the
CPA-mandated Government of National Unity, which since 2005 provided a percentage of leadership posts to the
south Sudan-based Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), was disbanded following the secession of South
Sudan.; 25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20
January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic
law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; however, the CPA establishes some
protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Islamic law will not
apply to the southern states
Executive: President elected by popular vote for a four year term though last election was in December 2000 in what
was widely believe to be a rigged election. First Vice President is the President of the autonomous Government of
Southern Sudan as part of the power sharing arrangement in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Election last held
on 11-15 April 2010; next to be held in 2015
Legislative: Bicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by
state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; 60% from geographic constituencies,
25% from a women's list, and 15% from party lists; members to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2016)
Judicial: Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national
courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
LANGUAGES
Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
note: program of "Arabization" in process
BRIEF HISTORY
Archaeological excavation of archaeological sites on the Nile above Aswan has confirmed human habitation in the river
valley during the Paleolithic period that spanned more than 60,000 years of Sudanese history. A prehistoric burial
discovered in northern Sudan reveals what is believed to be the world's earliest indication of warfare, dating to the 12th
millennium BC. By the eighth millennium B.C., people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there
in fortified mud-brick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle
herding. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan
Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic
kingship by 3300 BC. But during the close of the Nagada III period, Nagada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole
Nile valley, seems to have conquered their southern neighbors and thus, "egyptianized" them. The result appears to have
been the depopulation of the entire Lower Nubian area, either by the genocidal efforts of the First Dynasty Egyptian
kings, or by the migration (forced or voluntary) of the Nubians to areas north and south. Northern Sudan's earliest
historical record comes from Egyptian sources, which described the land upstream from the First Cataract, called Kush,
as "wretched." For more than 2,000 years after the Old Kingdom (ca. 2700-2180 B.C.), Egyptian political and economic
activities determined the course of the central Nile region's history. Even during intermediate periods when Egyptian
political power in Kush waned, Egypt exerted a profound cultural and religious influence on the Kushite people. Around
1720 B.C., Asian nomads called Hyksos invaded Egypt, ended the Middle Kingdom, severed links with Kush, and
destroyed the forts along the Nile River. By the sixth century, three states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of
the Meroitic kingdom. Nobatia in the north, had its capital at Faras, in what is now Egypt; the central kingdom, Muqurra,
was centered at Dunqulah, the old city on the Nile about 150 kilometers south of modern Dunqulah; and Alwa, in the
heartland of old Meroe in the south, had its capital at Sawba. In all three kingdoms, warrior aristocracies ruled Meroitic
populations from royal courts where functionaries bore Greek titles in emulation of the Byzantine court. Islam came to
Egypt in the 640s, and pressed southward; around 651 the governor of Egypt raided as far south as Dongola. The
Muslims or the Arabs met with stiff resistance and found little wealth worth capturing. They thus ceased their offensive and
a treaty known as the baqt was signed between the Arabs and Makuria. This treaty held for some seven hundred years.
Far less is known about the history of southern Sudan. It seems as though it was home to a variety of semi-nomadic
tribes. In the 16th century one of these tribes, known as the Funj, moved north and united Nubia forming the Kingdom of
Sennar. The Funj sultans quickly converted to Islam and that religion steadily became more entrenched. At the same time,
the Darfur Sultanate arose in the west. Between them, the Taqali established a state in the Nuba Hills. The economy of
Sudan was feudally based, with a large number of slaves supporting the ruling Jellaba class. The Jellaba were Arab
merchants who had come to Sudan with Islam. They traded across the region, but did not build up much industrial or
productive capability in Sudan. Through the centuries millions of slaves were captured and sold in Sudan, many being
exported to the Middle East. The slave trade made southern blacks hostile toward Islam, preventing its spread in those
areas. In 1820–21, an Egyptian-Ottoman force conquered and unified the northern portion of the country. The new
government was known as the Turkiyah or Turkish regime. They were looking to open new markets and sources of
natural resources. Historically, the pestilential swamps of the Sudd discouraged expansion into the deeper south of the
country. Although Egypt claimed all of the present Sudan during most of the 19th century, and established a province
Equatoria in southern Sudan to further this aim, it was unable to establish effective control over the area, which remained
an area of fragmented tribes subject to frequent attacks by slave raiders. In the later years of the Turkiyah, the British
missionaries traveled from what is now modern day Kenya in to the Sudd to convert the local tribes to Christianity. During
the 1870s European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in southern Sudan, precipitating the rise of
Mahdist forces. An Anglo-Egyptian force under Lord Kitchener in 1898sent to Sudan. Sudan was proclaimed a
condominium in 1899 under British-Egyptian administration. The Governor-General of the Sudan, for example, was
appointed by 'Khedival Decree', rather than simply by the British Crown, but while maintaining the appearance of joint
administration, the British Empire formulated policies, and supplied most of the top administrators. In 1892 a Belgian
expedition claimed portions of southern Sudan that became known as the Lado Enclave. The Lado Enclave was officially
part of the Belgian Congo. An 1896 agreement between the United Kingdom and Belgium saw the enclave turned over to
the British after the death of King Léopold II in 1910. At the same time the French claimed several areas: Bahr el Ghazal,
and the Western Upper Nile up to Fashoda. By 1896 they had a firm administrative hold on these areas and they planned
on annexing them to French West Africa. An international conflict known as the Fashoda incident developed between
France and the United Kingdom over these areas. In 1899 France agreed to cede the area to the UK. Then in 1946 the
British colonial authority reversed its policy and decided to integrate north and south Sudan under one government. South
Sudanese authorities were informed at the Juba Conference of 1947 that they would now be governed by a common
administrative authority with the north. From 1948, 13 delegates, picked by the British authorities represented the south
on the Sudan Legislative Assembly. Many southerners felt betrayed by the British because they were largely excluded
from the new government. The language of the new government was Arabic, but the bureaucrats and politicians from
southern Sudan had, for the most part, been trained in English. Of the 800 new governmental positions vacated by the
British in 1953, only 4 were given to southerners. Also, the political structure in the south was not as organized in the
north, so political groupings and parties from the south were not represented at the various conferences and talks that
established the modern state of Sudan. As a result, many southerners do not consider Sudan to be a legitimate state.
Sudan achieved independence on 1 January 1956, under a provisional constitution. The United States was among the first
foreign powers to recognize the new state. However, the Arab-led Khartoum government reneged on promises to
southerners to create a federal system, which led to a mutiny by southern army officers that sparked 17 years of civil war
(1955-1972). In 1983 the civil war was reignited following the government's Islamicization policy which would have
instituted Islamic law, among other things. After several years of fighting, the government compromised with southern
groups. In 1989 it appeared the war would end, but a coup brought a military junta into power which was not interested
in compromise. Since that time the war raged across Sudan. A final peace treaty was signed on 9 January 2005 in
Nairobi. A new rebellion in the western region of Darfur began in early 2003. The rebels accuse the central government of
neglecting the Darfur region, although there is uncertainty regarding the objectives of the rebels and whether they merely
seek an improved position for Darfur within Sudan or outright secession. Both the government and the rebels have been
accused of atrocities in this war, although most of the blame has fallen on Arab militias (Janjaweed) allied with the
government. The Chadian-Sudanese conflict officially started on December 23, 2005, when the government of Chad
declared a state of war with Sudan. On 31 August 2006, the United Nations Security Council approved Resolution 1706
to send a new peacekeeping force of 17,300 to Darfur. In the following months, however, UNMIS was not able to
deploy to Darfur due to the Government of the Sudan’s steadfast opposition to a peacekeeping operation undertaken
solely by the United Nations. The UN then embarked on an alternative, innovative approach to try to begin stabilize the
region through the phased strengthening of AMIS, before transfer of authority to a joint African Union/United Nations
peacekeeping operation. Following prolonged and intensive negotiations with the Government of the Sudan and significant
international pressure, the Government of the Sudan finally accepted the peacekeeping operation in Darfur. In 2009 the
International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir, accusing him of crimes against humanity and war
crimes. In 2009 and 2010 a series of conflicts between rival nomadic tribes in South Kordofan caused a large number of
casualties and displaced thousands. An agreement for the restoration of harmony between Chad and Sudan, signed
January 15, 2010, marked the end of a five-year war between them. The Sudanese government and the JEM signed a
ceasefire agreement ending the Darfur conflict in February, 2010. In January 2011 referendum on independence for
Southern Sudan was held, and the South voted overwhelmingly to secede later that year as the Republic of South Sudan,
with its capital at Juba and Kiir Mayardit as its first president. Al-Bashir announced that he accepted the result, but
violence soon erupted in the disputed region of Abyei, claimed by both the North and the South. On June 6, 2011 armed
conflict broke out in South Kordofan between the forces of Northern and Southern Sudan, ahead of the scheduled
independence of the South on July 9. This followed an agreement for both sides to withdraw from Abyei. On June, 20 the
parties agreed to demilitarize the contested area of Abyei where Ethiopian peacekeepers will be deployed. On July 9,
2011 South Sudan became an independent country. Intermittent skirmishes have been fought along the borders since
independence primarily due to disputes over oil. On 13 September 2011, Bashir appointed Dr. Al-Haj Adam Youssef as
his Second Vice President, the highest political position every obtained  by a West Darfurian.
Source:   Wikipedia History of Sudan
ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
Sudan is an extremely poor country that has had to deal with social conflict, civil war, and the July 2011 secession of
South Sudan - the region of the country that had been responsible for about three-fourths of the former Sudan's total oil
production. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan''s GDP growth since it began exporting oil in 1999. For nearly a
decade, the economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of
foreign direct investment. Following South Sudan''s secession, Sudan has struggled to maintain economic stability,
because oil earnings now provide a far lower share of the country''s need for hard currency and for budget revenues.
Sudan is attempting to generate new sources of revenues, such as from gold mining, while carrying out an austerity
program to reduce expenditures. Services and utilities have played an increasingly important role in the economy.
Agricultural production continues to employ 80% of the work force and contributes a third of GDP. Sudan introduced
a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan''s secession, but the value of the currency has
fallen since its introduction and shortages of foreign exchange continue. Sudan also faces rising inflation, which has led
to a number of small scale protests in Khartoum in recent months. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and
the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence
agriculture ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years to come.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Sudan)
POLITICAL CLIMATE
Following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005 between the government of Omar
al-Bashir and the SPLA, a Government of National Unity was installed in Sudan in accordance with the Interim
Constitution whereby a co-Vice President position representing the south was created in addition to the northern
Sudanese Vice President. This allowed the north and south to split oil deposits equally,[7] but also left both the north's
and south's armies in place. Following the Darfur Peace Agreement, the office of senior Presidential advisor was
allocated to Minni Minnawi, a Zaghawa of the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA), and this thus became the fourth
highest constitutional post. Executive posts are divided between the National Congress Party (NCP), the Sudan
People's Liberation Army, Eastern Front and factions of the Umma Party and Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). This
peace agreement with the rebel group Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) granted Southern Sudan autonomy for
six years, to be followed by a referendum about independence in 2011. According to the new 2005 constitution, the
bicameral National Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament, and is divided between two chambers; the National
Assembly, a lower house with 450 seats, and the Council of States, an upper house with 50 seats. Thus the parliament
consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year
terms.

Despite his international arrest warrant, Omar al-Bashir was re-elected in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, the
first democratic election with multiple political parties participating in nine years. His political rival was Vice President
Salva Kiir Mayardit, current leader of the SPLA. On 13 September 2011, Bashir appointed Dr. Al-Haj Adam
Youssef as his Second Vice President, the highest political position every obtained  by a West Darfurian.
Source:   Wikipedia Politics of Sudan
INTERNATIONAL
DISPUTES
the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of
the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a
joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of 2006,
Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter for
over a half million Sudanese refugees, which include 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid
armed militia and Sudanese military forces; as of January 2011, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 138,700 Eritreans,
43,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups;
efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan;
Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd
parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among
related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary
represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of
Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan.
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
REFUGEES AND
INTERNALLY
DISPLACED PERSONS
(IDP)
Refugees (country of origin): 103,798 (Eritrea); 39,578 (Chad); 5,600 (Ethiopia)
IDPs: more than 2.1 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting
along South Sudan border) (2012)
ILLICIT DRUGS
None reported.
Sudan Human Rights
Network
U. S. STATE
DEPARTMENT
HUMAN RIGHTS STATEMENTS, ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUES
2011 Human Rights Report: Sudan
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
May 25, 2012

Sudan is a republic transitioning, after the secession of South Sudan in July, toward a new constitution from a power-sharing
arrangement established by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). The National Congress Party controls the
government, with power concentrated in the hands of authoritarian President Omar Hassan al-Bashir and his inner circle. In April
2010 the country held its first national, multiparty elections in 24 years. The elections, which several opposition parties boycotted,
did not meet international standards. Observers reported restriction of civil liberties, intimidation, threats of violence, lack of
transparency in vote tabulation, and other problems. President Bashir was reelected, and his political party won 323 of 450 seats in
the National Assembly. There were instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of civilian control,
especially in the Darfur Region and the Three Areas.

From January 9 to 15, citizens of South Sudanese origin voted in a referendum on the secession of South Sudan from Sudan.
Ninety-eight percent voted for secession. International and national observers described the referendum process as consistent with
international standards, peaceful, and orderly. The Republic of South Sudan formally gained its independence in July. Although
required by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, a simultaneous referendum on the status of Abyei was not held, and popular
consultations in Southern Kordofan were indefinitely postponed. Blue Nile consultations were concluded, but the recommendations
were not implemented by year’s end. Conflict continued in Darfur, and conflict occurred in the three border areas of Abyei,
Southern Kordofan, and Blue Nile (the Three Areas). Abyei’s final sovereignty status was not resolved, and the area was under joint
administration by both Sudan and South Sudan.

The main human rights abuses during the year included the following: government forces and government-aligned groups
committed extrajudicial and other unlawful killings; security forces committed torture, beatings, rape, and other cruel and inhumane
treatment or punishment; and prison and detention center conditions were harsh and life threatening.

Other major abuses included arbitrary arrest and arbitrary, incommunicado, and prolonged pretrial detention; executive interference
with the judiciary and denial of due process; obstruction of humanitarian assistance; restriction of freedoms of speech, press,
assembly, association, religion, and movement; harassment of internally displaced persons; restrictions on privacy; harassment and
closure of human rights organizations; violence and discrimination against women, including female genital mutilation; child abuse,
including sexual violence and recruitment of child soldiers; trafficking in persons; violence against ethnic minorities; denial of
workers’ rights; and forced and child labor.

Except in rare cases, the government took no steps to prosecute or punish officials in the security services and elsewhere in the
government who committed abuses. Security force impunity remained a serious problem.

Rebels in Darfur and the Three Areas also committed abuses during the year.
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UNITED NATIONS
HUMAN RIGHTS
COUNCIL
22 August 2011
Human Rights Council
Eighteenth session
Agenda item 4
Human rights situations that require the Council’s attention
Report of the independent expert on
the situation of human rights in the Sudan, Mohamed Chande Othman

Summary
The present report is submitted by the independent expert on the situation of human rights in the Sudan pursuant to Human Rights
Council resolution 15/27, in which the Council decided to extend the mandate of the independent expert, in accordance with
Commission on Human Rights resolution 2005/82, Council resolutions 6/34, 6/35, 7/16, 9/17 and Council decision 14/117. The
present report covers the period from September 2010 to June 2011.

I. Introduction
1. In its resolution 11/10, the Human Rights Council decided to establish the mandate of the independent expert on the situation of
human rights in the Sudan. It also decided that the independent expert would assume the mandate and responsibilities of the Special
Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Sudan, as previously set out in Council resolutions 6/34, 6/35, 7/16 and 9/17. In
its resolution 15/27, the Council extended the mandate of the independent expert for a period of one year and requested him to
report to the Council at its eighteenth session.

2. The present report covers the period from 1 September 2010 to 30 June 2011. In compliance with the code of conduct for
special procedures mandate holders of the Human Rights Council,1 a draft of the report has been shared with the Government of
the Sudan and the Government of South Sudan in order to provide them with an opportunity to comment on the observations and
findings of the independent expert.

3. The present report is based on information made available to the independent expert during his visits to the Sudan, from 6 to 13
March 2011, and from 31 May to 8 June 2011, as well as from information provided by the Government of the Sudan, the United
Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) and other sources,
including United Nations agencies, funds and programmes with operational competence in the Sudan.
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FREEDOM HOUSE
Freedom House Condemns Sudanese Government’s Killing of 12 During Protests
Aug 2 2012 - 5:10pm

Freedom House strongly denounces the death of 12 individuals in Nyala, South Darfur, following the firing of live ammunition and
tear gas into mass public protests by the Sudanese police and National Intelligence and Security Service.  The Government of
Sudan must halt its crackdown on the Sudanese people’s right to peacefully protest and exercise their right to freedom of
assembly, association, and expression.

The protests in Nyala began in response to a recent escalation in fuel prices and are the latest in a wave of mass action that has
taken place in cities throughout Sudan since mid-June, calling for the respect of fundamental freedoms, peace, and justice.  State
security has reportedly responded with the arbitrary arrest and detention, abuse, and torture of individuals suspected of participation
in the protests.

Among those killed, ten were below the age of eighteen and sources at Nyala hospital confirmed all deaths were the result of either
gunshot wounds or wounds caused by sharp weapons.

Sudan, ruled by military strongman Omar al-Bashir since 1989, ranks among the worlds’ most repressive regimes. Following South
Sudan’s independence in July 2011, Sudan’s ruling National Congress Party has launched a brutal crackdown on peaceful
demonstrations in an effort to tighten its hold on power.
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AMNESTY
INTERNATIONAL
Sudanese man at risk of execution: Al-Tom Hamed Tutu
18 October 2012

A Sudanese man, Al-Tom Hamed Tutu, a member of the Darfuri armed-opposition group, the Justice and Equality Movement
(JEM), faces imminent execution if his death sentence is not overturned on appeal. He was subjected to a flawed trial and has
reportedly been tortured in detention.

Al-Tom Hamed Tutu was arrested on 21 July 2011 in the Kadugli locality, in Sudan’s Southern Kordofan state. He was charged
with seven counts against the state including, “undermining the constitutional system” and “waging war against the state” (under
Articles 50 and 51 of the 1991 Criminal Act), both of which are punishable by death or life imprisonment. The trial took place in
Kadugli Criminal Court from 22 to 25 August 2011, following which he was sentenced to death by hanging. This sentence was
upheld by the appeals chambers of the same court in September 2011.

Al-Tom Hamed Tutu’s lawyer was not allowed to introduce witnesses during the trial or given sufficient time to review the
evidence against his client. Reports further indicate that Al-Tom Hamed Tutu was tortured in prison on various occasions; his
hands and feet were beaten with wooden sticks, and he was suspended from the ceiling with his hands and feet bound together. He
has also reportedly been repeatedly threatened with execution.

After appealing to the High Court president, a decision was not communicated to Al-Tom Hamed Tutu or his lawyer, until he was
taken for execution on 24 May 2012. His execution was temporarily suspended pending the submission of an appeal to the
Constitutional Court, which was submitted on 10 June 2012. There are concerns that if the appeal is unsuccessful he could face
execution the following day.
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HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
Sudan: Police Fatally Shoot Darfur Protesters
Investigate and Prosecute Authorities Responsible
August 3, 2012

(Juba) – The Sudanese government should forcefully condemn the killing of 12 peaceful protesters in South Darfur by police and
other security forces on July 31, 2012, and investigate and prosecute those responsible, Human Rights Watch said today.

“The Sudanese government needs to take decisive action when its forces shoot and kill students peacefully demonstrating against
the government,” said Daniel Bekele, Africa director at Human Rights Watch. “The government should denounce the illegal killings
in Darfur and investigate those responsible.”

In Nyala, South Darfur, high school students started protesting on July 30 against transportation price increases. The following
morning, police and national security forces dispersed the protests by shooting teargas, rubber bullets, and live ammunition at
protesters, killing at least eight on the spot and injuring about 100 others.

As of August 2, at least 12 protesters had died, according to Sudanese nongovernmental groups monitoring the situation. A 16-year-
old boy, a 17-year-old girl, and four other teenagers were among those killed.

The protests started at schools, then spread to the streets, with some protesters throwing rocks at police, blocking roads, and
vandalizing a government building. Police and national security forces used teargas and rubber bullets and fired rifles to disperse
them, witnesses told Human Rights Watch.

“Police used live ammunition against students who were just carrying signs that say, ‘People want the downfall of the regime,’” a
witness told Human Rights Watch.

The United Nations Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials provide that security forces
shall as far as possible apply nonviolent means before resorting to the use of force. Whenever the lawful use of force is necessary,
the authorities should use restraint and act in proportion to the seriousness of the offense. Lethal force may only be used when it is
“strictly unavoidable in order to protect life.”

The Basic Principles also provide that “[i]n cases of death and serious injury or other grave consequences, a detailed report [on the
incident] shall be sent promptly to the competent authorities responsible for administrative review and judicial control.”
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OFFICIAL
GOVERNMENT HUMAN
RIGHTS STATEMENT
Sudan, Darfur rebel group agree to open peace talks in Doha
October 22, 2012 (KHARTOUM)

Sudanese government and a splinter faction of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) agreed Monday in Doha to immediately
cease hostilities and hold peace negotiations in line with the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD).


In a series of meeting from 17 – 22 October 2012, a Sudanese government delegation led by Amin Hassan Omer, state minister and
head of the Darfur Follow-up Office and a delegation from JEM- interim military council led by Mohamed Bashar Ahmed, the
group leader, held direct talks in Doha on ways to negotiate a peace agreement.

JEM- military council president, Mohamed Bashar since last month said they are willing to hold direct talks with the Sudanese
government after a meeting gathering senior military commanders who decided to distance themselves from JEM leader Gibril
Ibrahim.

"The two parties signed a declaration affirming their commitment to the Peace Process and to immediate cessation of hostilities and
decided to resume negotiations in order to achieve a comprehensive settlement of the conflict on the basis of the DDPD," reported
a statement released by the mediation.

The Qatari Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed bin Abdullah Al-Mahmoud and the acting UNAMID chief and joint mediator, Aichatou S.
Mindaoudou attended the intensive consultations between the two parties.

The mediation further said that "The two parties agreed on a time frame to start talks after Eid Al-Adha Al-Mubarak," which will
start on 26 October.

Speaking to Sudan Tribune from Doha, the spokesperson of the military council Ali Wafi stressed that they agreed with the
Sudanese government to discuss all the seven chapters of the DDPD, pointing out that many things are remained unimplemented
since its signing on 14 July 2011 with the Liberation and Equality Movement (LJM).

"What can be reached will added in form of attached annexes to the peace agreement," he added.

The rebel faction has broke formally with JEM after holding a meeting on 8 and 9 September but the issue was known since the
9th August when the movement’s leader Gibril Ibrahim removed the general commander Bakheit Abdallah Abdel Karim Dabajo
from his position .

JEM- military council has to hold a general conference following what a negotiating team will be formed to take part in the talks
with Khartoum.
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SUDAN HUMAN RIGHTS
NETWORK
Urgent Action
by Aymen Tabir
August 29,2012

Name: Omeia Abdulatif Hassan Omeia
Age: 32
Occupation: BSc in communication, works for the ministry of social affairs
Affiliation: Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – North (SPLM- N)
Marital Status: Married/ A son
Date of kidnap: 22nd August, 2012
Place of kidnap: Tajmala 32K North to Abugibeiha – South Kordofan

Where believed to be detained: Mr. Omeia was seen on August 26th 2012 where trusted eyewitnesses suspected that he is  kept  in
the Public Defense Headquarter in Rashad (55 Km North to Abugibeiha). The eyewitnesses further noticed signs of severe torture.

Background:
On August 17th 2012  Mr. Omeia came to Abugibeiha to celebrate the Eid festival after Ramadan with his family, then on
Wednesday, August 22nd 2012  he lost one of his relatives in Tajmala (about 32 km North of Abojebeiha or midway between
Abujeibaha and Rashad) .

Mr. Omeia went to Tajmala to offoer his condolences and on the same day at 2:00 PM 14:00 hrs (Sudan local time), he wanted to
return to Abugibeiha.  At the bus station, Mr. Omeia was seen for the last time in a Land Cruiser Buffalo – Hardtop- (usually
belongs to either  National Intelligence Security Services (NISS) or military services). The car was seen heading to the North
towards Rashad in the opposite direction of Abujibeiha.   Since then Mr. Omeia disappeared completely until August 24th 2012
when he was seen in the Public Defense Headquarter by a trusted source,  in Rashad (55 Km North to Abugibeiha. The source
added that Mr. Omeia has been subjected to a terrible torture and his life is in danger as a result of that.

His family reported the case to the authorities, but no feedback has yet received.

It should be noted that Mr. Omeia has been arrested by NNIS two times before and this was in the last year when he  came to
celebrate the Eid festival with his family.

Sudan Human Rights Network is deeply concerned about the continued detention of Mr.Omeia Abdulatif Hassan Omeia, and calls
on Sudanese authorities to immediately release Mr. Mr.Omeia, since no charges were brought against him.

Sudan Human Rights Network (SHRN) urges all activists and human rights organizations to:

  •    Express their concern for the continuation of the detention of Mr. Mr.Omeia.
  •    Urge the Sudanese authorities to immediately and unconditionally release Mr.Omeia.
  •    Request assurances that he is humanly treated, has immediate and regular access to his family, lawyers, and be given any
    necessary medical attention.
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SUDAN OMBUDSMAN
Angola: Sudanese Ombudsman Arrives in Luanda
18 June 2012

Luanda — The Sudanese Ombudsman, Mohamed Abuzeide, arrived Monday in Luanda to attend the meeting on coordination and
implementation of an Memorandum of Understanding between the African Union (AU) and African Ombudsman & Mediators
Association (AOMA), scheduled for June 20-25.

Speaking to the press, the Sudanese mediator said that he has come to Angola at the invitation of the local Ombudsman, Paulo
Tchipilica, to attend the signing of an addendum to the agreement with the African Union, that will be represented by its
commissioner for Political Affairs, Júlia Dolly Joiner.

He stressed that the agreement is another step toward the promotion of democracy, good governance and human rights in Africa.

The event will focus on the fields for implementation of the said agreement, the operational framework for implementation of the
AU/AOMA Memorandum of Understanding and debate about the operational framework forwarded by the African Commission's
legal adviser.

AOMA emerged from 1990 to 1997, at the regional conferences held in Khartoum, Sudan, with the designation of the African
Ombudsman Centre (AOC).

In 2003, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, the association adopted the designation of African Ombudsman & Mediators Association
(AOMA).

Under the statutes, the Association holds its general assembly every two years.

The first meeting happened in April 2005 in Johannesburg, South Africa, followed by that of Tripoli, Libya (April 2008) and Angola
(April 2010).
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TRAFFICKING IN
PERSONS
Current situation: Sudan is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked internally for the purposes of
forced labor and sexual exploitation; Sudan is also a transit and destination country for Ethiopian women trafficked
abroad for domestic servitude; Sudanese women and girls are trafficked within the country, as well as possibly to
Middle Eastern countries for domestic servitude; the terrorist rebel organization, Lord's Resistance Army, continues to
harbor small numbers of Sudanese and Ugandan children in the southern part of the country for use as cooks, porters,
and combatants; some of these children are also trafficked across borders into Uganda or the Democratic Republic of
the Congo; militia groups in Darfur, some of which are linked to the government, abduct women for short periods of
forced labor and to perpetrate sexual violence; during the two decades-long north-south civil war, thousands of Dinka
women and children were abducted and subsequently enslaved by members of the Missiriya and Rezeigat tribes; while
there have been no known new abductions of Dinka by members of Baggara tribes in the last few years, inter-tribal
abductions continue in southern Sudan

Tier rating: Tier 3 - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is
not making significant efforts to do so; combating human trafficking through law enforcement or prevention measures
was not a priority for the government in 2007 (2008)
Dr. Al-Haj Adam Youssef
Second Vice President since 13 September 2011