United Republic of Tanzania
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
Joined United Nations:  14 December 1961
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
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Updated 15 March 2013
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death
rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by
age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 201
2 est.)
President and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular
vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last
held 31 October 2010

NOTE- Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for
matters internal to Zanzibar; Ali Mohamed SHEIN elected to that
office on 31 October 2010, sworn in 3 November 2010

Next scheduled election: December 2015
According to the Tanzanian Constitution, the President is both the
Chief of State and Head of Government
Mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European,
and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Republic with 26 regions; Legal system is based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of
interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Executive: President and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term);
election last held 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
 note: Zanzibar elects a
president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Ali Mohamed SHEIN elected to that office on 31 October
2010, sworn in 3 November 2010

Legislative: Unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (357 seats; 239 members elected by popular vote, 102 allocated to women
nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms, up to 10
additional members appointed by the president, 1 seat reserved for the Attorney General); note - in addition to enacting laws that
apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own
House of Representatives with jurisdiction exclusive to Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats; members
elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
Judicial: Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges);
High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District
Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce,
administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
Tanzania is home to some of the oldest human settlements unearthed by archaeologists, including fossils of early humans found in
and around Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, an area often referred to as "The Cradle of Mankind". These fossils include
Paranthropus bones thought to be over 2 million years old, and the oldest known footprints of the immediate ancestors of humans,
the Laetoli footprints, estimated to be about 3.6 million years old. Reaching back about 10,000 years, Tanzania is believed to have
been populated by hunter-gatherer communities, probably Khoisan speaking people. Between three and five thousand years ago,
they were joined by Cushitic-speaking people who came from the north, into which the Khoisan peoples were slowly absorbed.
Cushitic peoples introduced basic techniques of agriculture, food production, and later, cattle farming. About 2000 years ago,
Bantu-speaking people began to arrive from western Africa in a series of migrations. These groups brought and developed
ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. They absorbed many of the Cushitic peoples who had
preceded them, as well as most of the remaining Khoisan-speaking inhabitants. Later, Nilotic pastoralists arrived, and continued to
immigrate into the area through to the 18th century. Beginning in the early first millennium CE, settlements were established in coastal
towns by Persian and Arabian traders. The Arabs and Persians intermingled with indigenous Bantu-speakers, giving rise to both the
Swahili language and culture, influenced by both Arabic and Islam. The Swahili influence was felt east to the islands of Comoros and
Madagascar, as well as west into central Africa, the Great Lakes kingdoms, and Zimbabwe.Over the next few centuries, trading
outposts were established all along the coast as well as on the islands of the Zanzibar archipelago and Kilwa. Between the 13th and
15th centuries, in a period known as the Shirazi Era, these settlements flourished, with trade in ivory, gold and other goods
extending as far away as India and China. In the early 1300s Ibn Battuta, a Berber traveler from North Africa, visited Kilwa and
proclaimed it one of the best cities in the world. In 1498 Vasco da Gama became the first European to reach the East African
coast, and by 1525 the Portuguese had subdued the entire coast. Portuguese control lasted until the early 18th century, when Arabs
from Oman established a foothold in the region. Assisted by Omani Arabs, the indigenous coastal dwellers succeeded in driving the
Portuguese from the area north of the Ruvuma River by the early 18th century. Claiming the coastal strip, Omani Sultan Seyyid Said
moved his capital to Zanzibar City in 1840. Tanganyika as a geographical and political entity did not take shape before the period of
High Imperialism; its name only came into use after German East Africa was transferred to the United Kingdom as a mandate by the
League of Nations in 1920. What is referred to here, therefore, is the history of the region that was to become Tanzania. European
exploration of the interior began in the mid-19th century. In 1848 the German missionary Johannes Rebmann became the first
European to see Mount Kilimanjaro. British explorers Richard Burton and John Speke crossed the interior to Lake Tanganyika in
1857. In January 1866 the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone, who crusaded against the slave trade, went to
Zanzibar, from where he set out to seek the source of the Nile, and established his last mission at Ujiji on the shores of Lake
Tanganyika. German colonial interests were first advanced in 1884. All resistance to the Germans in the interior ceased and they
could now set out to organize German East Africa. During World War I, an invasion attempt by the British was thwarted by
German General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck at the Battle of Tanga, who then mounted a drawn out guerrilla warfare campaign
against the British. The mandate to administer the former German colony was conferred on the United Kingdom under the terms of
the Supreme Council of the League of Nations. With the concurrence of the Supreme Council, the United Kingdom transferred the
provinces of Ruanda-Urundi, in the northwest, to Belgium. These provinces contained three-sevenths of the population and more
than half the cattle of the colony. The boundaries of the East Indies Station were enlarged in 1919 to include Zanzibar and what was
the littoral of German East Africa. Dar-es-Salaam remained the seat of Government. After World War II, Tanganyika became a
UN territory under British control. Subsequent years witnessed Tanganyika moving gradually toward self-government and
independence. In 1954, Julius Nyerere, the future leader of Tanzania, who was then a school teacher and one of only two
Tanganyikans educated abroad at the university level, organized a political party -- the Tanganyika African National Union
(TANU). An early Arab/Persian trading center, Zanzibar fell under Portuguese domination in the 16th and early 17th centuries but
was retaken by Omani Arabs in the early 18th century. The height of Arab rule came during the reign of Sultan Seyyid Said, who
moved his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar, established a ruling Arab elite, and encouraged the development of clove plantations,
using the island's slave labor. The archipelago was world-famous for its trade in spices and became known as the Spice Islands. It
was also a major transit point in the Arab slave trade. Zanzibar attracted ships from as far away as the United States, which
established a consulate in 1837. The United Kingdom's early interest in Zanzibar was motivated by both commerce and the
determination to end the slave trade. In 1822, the British signed the first of a series of treaties with Sultan Said to curb this trade, but
not until 1876 was the sale of slaves finally prohibited. The Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty of 1890 made Zanzibar and Pemba a British
protectorate, and the Caprivi Strip in Namibia became a German protectorate. British rule through a Sultan remained largely
unchanged from the late 19th century until five years after World War II. In 1954, Julius Nyerere, a school teacher who was then
one of only two Tanganyikans educated to university level, organized a political party--the Tanganyika African National Union
(TANU). In May 1961, Tanganika became autonomous, and Nyerere became Prime Minister under a new constitution. Full
independence was achieved on December 9, 1961. 'Mwalimu' Julius Kambarage Nyerere was elected President when Tanganyika
became a republic within the Commonwealth a year after independence. Zanzibar received its independence from the United
Kingdom on December 19, 1963, as a constitutional monarchy under the sultan. On January 12, 1964, the African majority
revolted against the sultan and a new government was formed with the ASP leader, Abeid Karume, as President of Zanzibar and
Chairman of the Revolutionary Council. On April 26, 1964, Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of
Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania on October 29 of that year. The name
Tanzania is a portmanteau of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and previously had no significance. In 1979 Tanzania declared war on
Uganda after Uganda invaded and tried to annex the northern Tanzanian province of Kagera. Tanzania not only expelled Ugandan
forces, but, enlisting the country's population of Ugandan exiles, also invaded Uganda itself. On April 11, 1979, Idi Amin was
forced to quit the capital, Kampala. The Tanzanian army took the city with the help of the Ugandan and Rwandan guerrillas. Amin
fled into exile. One of the deadly 1998 U.S. embassy bombings occurred in Dar Es Salaam; the other was in Nairobi, Kenya. In
2004, the undersea earthquake on the other side of the Indian ocean caused tidal surges along Tanzania's coastline in which 11
people were killed.
On 14 December 2005 General elections are held.Anna Senkoro of the Progressive Party of Tanzania–
Maendeleo is the first woman in Tanzania to run for President. On 21 December Jakaya Kikwete is sworn in as the fourth President
of Tanzania. On 30 December Edward Lowassa is sworn is as Prime Minister. On 11 May 2006 scientists announce that the
Kipunji monkey found in 2003 belongs to a new genus of African monkey—the first to be discovered since 1923. On 9 August      
$642m of Tanzania's debt is cancelled by the African Development Bank.
An oil tanker also temporarily ran aground in the Dar Es
Salaam harbour, damaging an oil pipeline.
In 2008, a power surge cut off power to Zanzibar, resulting in the 2008 Zanzibar Power
blackout. On 6 February 2008 a  parliamentary committee reports on corruption within the cabinet. On 7 February Prime Minister
Edward Lowassa and two other ministers resign following the report on corruption. President Kikwete dissolves the cabinet.
General elections were held in Tanzania on 31 October 2010. The presidential elections were won by the incumbent President
Jakaya Kikwete of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party (CCM), who received 63% of the vote. The parliamentary elections resulted in
a victory for the CCM, which won 186 of the 239 elected seats. In the elections in semi-autonomous Zanzibar, Ali Mohamed Shein
of the CCM won the presidential election, whilst the CCM also won the most seats in the House of Representatives.

Source: Wikipedia: History of Tanzania
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, however, it has achieved high growth based on
gold production and tourism. The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides
85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds
to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging economic infrastructure, including rail and port infrastructure that are important trade links for inland
countries. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment, and the government has increased
spending on agriculture to 7% of its budget. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported a positive
growth rate, despite the world recession. In 2008, Tanzania received the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant,
worth $698 million. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus and loosened monetary policy to ease the impact of the global recession.
GDP growth in 2009-12 was a respectable 6% per year due to high gold prices and increased production.
Source: CIA World Factbook (select Tanzania)
From independence in 1961 until the mid-1980s, Tanzania was a one-party state, with a socialist model of economic development.
Beginning in the mid-1980s, under the administration of President Ali Hassan Mwinyi, Tanzania undertook a number of political and
economic reforms. In January and February 1992, the government decided to adopt multiparty democracy. Legal and constitutional
changes led to the registration of 11 political parties. Two parliamentary by-elections (won by CCM) in early 1994 were the first-
ever multiparty elections in Tanzanian history.

In October 2000, Tanzania held its second multi-party general elections. The ruling CCM party’s candidate, Benjamin W. Mkapa,
defeated his three main rivals, winning the presidential election with 71% of the vote. In the parliamentary elections, CCM won 202
of the 232 elected seats. In the Zanzibar presidential election, Abeid Amani Karume, the son of former President Abeid Karume,
defeated CUF candidate Seif Shariff Hamad. The election was marred by irregularities, and subsequent political violence claimed at
least 23 lives in January 2001, mostly on Pemba island, where police used tear gas and bullets against demonstrators. Hundreds
were injured, and state forces were reported to have attacked boats of refugees fleeing to Kenya. Also, 16 CUF members were
expelled from the Union Parliament after boycotting the legislature to protest the Zanzibar election results.

In October 2001, the CCM and the CUF parties signed a reconciliation agreement which called for electoral reforms and set up a
Commission of Inquiry to investigate the deaths that occurred in January 2001 on Pemba. The agreement also led to President
appointment of an additional CUF official to become a member of the Union Parliament. Changes to the Zanzibar Constitution in
April 2002 allowed both the CCM and CUF parties to nominate members to the Zanzibar Electoral Commission. In May 2003, the
Zanzibar Electoral Commission conducted by-elections to fill vacant seats in the parliament, including those seats vacated by the
CUF boycott. Observers considered these by-elections, the first major test of the reconciliation agreement, to be free, fair, and
peaceful. President Mkapa, Vice President Ali Mohamed Shein, Prime Minister Frederick Sumaye, and National Assembly
members will serve until the next general elections in 2005. Similarly, Zanzibar President Karume and members of the Zanzibar
House of Representatives also will complete their terms of office in 2005.

Tanzania is ranked Partly Free by Freedom House. The 2010 Democracy Index marked Tanzania a "hybrid regime", ranking 92th
out of 167. General elections were held in Tanzania on 31 October 2010. The presidential elections were won by the incumbent
President Jakaya Kikwete of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party (CCM), who received 63% of the vote. The parliamentary elections
resulted in a victory for the CCM, which won 186 of the 239 elected seats. In the elections in semi-autonomous Zanzibar, Ali
Mohamed Shein of the CCM won the presidential election, whilst the CCM also won the most seats in the House of
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of Tanzania
Tanzania still hosts more than a half-million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake
Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
U.S. State Department
United Nations Human
Rights Council
Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Freedom House
Refugees (country of origin): 67,549 (Burundi); 61,913 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2011)
Targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline,
through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past
have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia.
Legal and Human Rights
2011 Human Rights Report: Tanzania
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
11 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
25, 2012

The United Republic of Tanzania is a multiparty republic consisting of the mainland and the semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago,
whose main islands are Unguja and Pemba. The union is headed by a president, Jakaya Kikwete, who is also the head of government; its
unicameral legislative body is the National Assembly (parliament). Zanzibar, although part of the union government, has its own
president, court system, and legislature and exercises considerable autonomy. Tanzania held its fourth multiparty general elections in
October 2010 in which voters on Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar elected a union president and their respective representatives in the
union legislature.

In Zanzibar, where past elections were marked by violence and widespread irregularities, the 2010 elections proceeded peacefully after a
power-sharing agreement was reached between the ruling Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party and the opposition Civic United Front
(CUF). The Zanzibar electorate chose Ali Mohamed Shein, the immediate past union vice president, as president of Zanzibar and also
elected members of its House of Representatives. The union and Zanzibar elections were judged to be largely free and fair. Union
security forces reported to civilian authorities, but there were instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of
civilian control.

The three most widespread and systemic human rights issues in the country were the use of excessive force by police, prison guards,
and military personnel, which resulted in deaths and injuries; harsh and life threatening prison conditions; and mob violence.

Other human rights problems included restrictions on freedoms of press and assembly; some limitations on religious freedom, primarily
in Zanzibar; restrictions on the movement of refugees; official corruption, including judicial corruption and inefficiency, particularly in
the lower courts; societal violence against women and persons with albinism; child abuse, including female genital mutilation (FGM); and
discrimination based on sexual orientation. Trafficking in persons, both internal and international, as well as child labor were problems.

In some cases the government took steps to prosecute those who committed abuses, but impunity also existed.
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30 November 2012
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Concluding observations on the
initial to third report of the United Republic of Tanzania,
adopted by the Committee at
its forty-ninth session (12- 30 November 2012)

A. Introduction
2. The Committee welcomes the submission of the initial to third periodic reports of the United Republic of Tanzania (E/C.12/TZA/1-
3), albeit with a considerable delay, the
replies (E/C.12/TZA/Q/1-3/Add.1) to th e list of issues (E/C.12/TZA/Q/1-3), as well as the
Common Core Document (HRI/CORE/TZA/2012). It
also regrets, however, that during the dialogue many questions posed by the
Committee remained

B. Positive aspects
The Committee notes with appreciation efforts made by the State party
in promoting the implementation of economic, social and cultural
rights. The Committee welcomes in particular:
The establishment of the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau under the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Act No.
11 of 2007;
The adoption in 2008 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act;
The adoption in 2010 of the Persons with Disabilities Act;
(d) The significant improvement in primary school enrolment rates.

C. Principal subjects of concern and recommendations
4. The Committee is concerned that the provisions of the Covenant have not been fully incorporated into the domestic legal order. It is
also concerned that the State party invokes
traditional values to explain practices that are not in line with obligations flowing from
international human rights law, such as polygamy, female genital mutilation (FGM), as well as corporal punishment of children in
schools. (art. 2, para. 1)
The Committee urges the State party to take the necessary measures to give the Covenant full effect in its domestic legal order,
throughout its territory, including through the planned constitutional review prior to 2015. The Committee also calls on the State party to
ensure that redress for violations of the Covenant rights can be sought, and that the curriculum of training centres for judges include all
economic, social and cultural rights, as contained in the Covenant.

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New Report: Lack of Institutional Reform Hinders Democratic Progress in the Middle East
Sep 17 2012 - 11:54am

Nearly two years after a wave of popular uprisings began in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a lack of substantive institutional
reform has left states struggling to maintain democratic achievements, according to a new Freedom House report. The findings
illuminate reform failures that have contributed to recent violence across the MENA region.

Countries at the Crossroads 2012 analyzes the performance of 35 policy-relevant countries that are at a critical juncture between
democratic progress and deterioration. The best and worst performers in this year’s edition—Tunisia and Bahrain, respectively—are in
the MENA region, and the gap between them constitutes one of the largest intraregional divergences in the project. This gulf is due in
large part to the drastic contrast between the two governments’ commitments to strengthening democratic institutions.

“The weakness of the governance institutions in the Middle Eastern and North African countries covered in this year’s edition can be
seen in the riots occurring across the region and the authorities’ inability to respond effectively to unrest,” said Vanessa Tucker, director
for analysis at Freedom House. “After decades of corrupt and repressive rule, citizens in these states are facing brutal and ineffective
security forces, habitually divisive and confrontational politics, and a lack of productive avenues through which to lodge their grievances
and assert their rights.”

Middle East and North Africa findings:

   Tunisia, the clear frontrunner in the MENA region, made a discernible effort to relax restrictions on civil society, strengthen civil
liberties, and improve its electoral system. Though a number of problems remain, the transitional government made significant progress
in pursuing democratic reform through laws and institutions, thus establishing firm protections for newly won democratic rights.
   In Egypt, on the other hand, the ruling military council governed mainly through improvised procedures and unilateral decrees.
Despite clear improvements in the electoral process, there was insufficient institutionalization of reform. For example, the successful
constitutional referendum was undermined when the military later decreed constitutional amendments that were much wider in scope
than those the voters approved. This ad hoc approach to governing leaves citizens vulnerable, as the authorities can rescind their
democratic rights at will.
   Bahrain now performs at the governance level of pre-2011 Syria because of the government’s brutal offensive against nonviolent
protests, which has included the use of excessive force and torture, trying civilians in military courts, and allowing the Saudi military to
enter the country and buttress its repressive strategy.

Additional regional findings:

   Increases in violence and organized crime had a negative effect on the scores for the Latin American countries assessed in this
edition. The trend included high rates of violence against journalists in Mexico and Honduras, and growing interference by organized
crime in the electoral process in Guatemala and Mexico.
   The Asian countries in this year’s survey suffered major setbacks in the face of power grabs by the executive branch and ruling
parties, particularly in Sri Lanka and Vietnam. Freedom of expression was also constricted, as the Indonesian and Cambodian
governments, among others, cracked down on the media.
   One of Africa’s leading democracies, South Africa, suffered score declines because of the increasing dominance of the ruling African
National Congress and the government’s ongoing efforts to limit media freedom. Electoral abuses in Malawi and Uganda, in addition to
growing corruption in Tanzania, were also responsible for significant score drops among the African countries assessed in this edition.
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24 May 2012
Report 2012: No longer business as usual for tyranny and injustice


Burundian refugees continued to live under threat of forced repatriation. Police and other law enforcement officials accused of
committing human rights violations, including unlawful killings, were not brought to justice. Impunity continued for perpetrators of
sexual and other forms of gender-based violence.

The Constitution Review Act 2011, which set up a Commission to lead the constitutional review process, was passed in November amid
protests by the minority opposition members of Parliament that the public consultation on the new law was inadequate. Representatives
of the opposition party Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA) continued to call for a review of the law, particularly
provisions giving the President exclusive powers to appoint the Commission.

Refugees and migrants
Following a meeting in May between representatives of the governments of Tanzania and Burundi, and UNHCR, the UN refugee agency,
the government of Tanzania announced its intention to close down Mtabila camp – home to about 38,000 Burundian refugees – by the
end of December 2011. Tanzania also announced its intention to remove refugee protection by invoking the ceased circumstances clause
of the UN Refugee Convention. Although the government expected that some 20,000 refugees would voluntarily return to Burundi, the
affected refugees remained reluctant to return. The government announced in September that it was holding interviews with affected
refugees regarding their ongoing protection needs; however, there remained no procedures in place to assess whether repatriation was a
valid option. Affected refugees remained fearful of being forced to return to Burundi.

There were reports of unlawful killings and torture and other ill-treatment by the police and other law enforcement officials during
security operations in some parts of the country. More than 20 people reportedly died from gunshot wounds during the year, after the
police used lethal force to quell demonstrations or to prevent illegal access to mining areas.

   In January, at least three people died in Arusha town after police used live ammunition to disperse opposition party supporters who
were protesting the election of a ruling party Chama Cha Mapinduzi candidate to the local mayoral seat. By the end of the year, no
adequate investigations into these killings had been carried out and those responsible had not been brought to justice.

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Mercury Treaty: Last Chance to Address Health Effects
In Final Talks, Western Governments Should Agree to Include Prevention, Treatment
January 10, 2013

A proposed international treaty to address the damaging effects of mercury should include specific provisions to protect the health of
children and other vulnerable populations, Human Rights Watch said today. Governments are to meet in Geneva beginning January 13,
2013, for a fifth and final round of talks for the treaty. Mercury is a toxic metal that attacks the central nervous system and is
particularly harmful to children.

So far, the draft treaty has been focused on the environment and neglected the important role that the health sector has to play in
addressing the problems caused by mercury, Human Rights Watch said. Western governments have resisted including stronger health

“Delegates to the mercury treaty negotiations should seize this last chance and draft effective health strategies to prevent and treat
mercury poisoning,” said Juliane Kippenberg, senior researcher at Human Rights Watch. “Millions of people around the globe are
exposed to mercury on a daily basis, in artisanal mining and elsewhere. There is a dire need for stronger prevention and treatment of
mercury poisoning.”

Human Rights Watch research has documented how small-scale gold miners use mercury to extract gold from the ore, and risk mercury
poisoning as a result. At least 13 million people work as artisanal gold miners globally, including many children. Few are aware of the
harm mercury can cause.

In Mali, Human Rights Watch interviewed children as young as 11 about their daily work with mercury. InPapua New Guinea, a doctor
told Human Rights Watch researchers about the impact of mercury on small-scale gold miners: “We have dozens of cases of mercury
poisoning. ….They stare blankly at the wall. You cannot talk to them, they are not conversant, nothing. They are like zombies. And we
have several cases that did not recover.”

Many health systems are ill-equipped to address mercury poisoning. During a Human Rights Watch investigation in Tanzania, a medical
officer in a mining area expressed concern that health workers were “failing to diagnose” people suffering from mercury poisoning
because they lack training.
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at the 67th Session of the United Nations General Assembly

Mr. President,

For 50 years of Independence of the United Republic of Tanzania, we have witnessed and appreciated the effectiveness of preventive
diplomacy and have even participated in various mediation processes in the region and the continent such as in Burundi, Ivory Coast, the
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Kenya. The involvement of the Former Presidents of Tanzania, the late Mwalimu Julius
Kambarage Nyerere and Benjamin William Mkapa as well as that of H.E. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, President of the United Republic of
Tanzania in these processes is a clear testimony of our continued commitment to preventive diplomacy.

While striving to overcome the problems of conflicts, we are equally confronted with challenges of sustainable development. This
situation is further exacerbated by the effects of climate change, population growth, poverty, unemployment, hunger, diseases, growing
economic inequalities within and among countries as well as lack of rule of law and violations of human rights.

During the 66th Session of the General Assembly, H.E. President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete expressed serious concern regarding global
food insecurity. Since then, the situation has gotten worse and vulnerability of many developing countries has increased. We must work
collectively to address food insecurity. We must increase food production and productivity on a sustainable basis, strengthen agricultural
systems and establish early warning mechanisms as we also must develop effective responses to calamities such as those in the horn of
Africa and the Sahel Region. While ensuring food security, we need also to address the issue of nutrition. It is in this regard that
Tanzania is a proud member of the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement (SUN).

We - Member States have the duty and responsibility to make the world a better place. We should maintain the sanctity of humanity
before our ambitions and desires. In order to achieve this, we should recommit ourselves to, and uphold, the objectives and principles
contained in the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in
accordance with the United Nations Charter.

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Tanzanian Human Rights Defenders organisation explains the work of local HRDs
March 5, 2013

In IPP Media of 5 March 2013 appears a lengthy piece by correspondent GERALD KITABU who interviewed the head of the NGO
‘Tanzania Human Rights Defenders Coalition’ (THRD-Coalition) Mr ONESMO OLENGURUMWA on the protection of human rights
defenders in Tanzania. It interesting to see such an article which demonstrates the depth of the Human Rights Defenders issue at the
local level. Here follow a few quotes:

QUESTION:  Who is a human right defender?
ANSWER: A human rights defender is any individual, groups and organs of society seeking to promote and protect universally
recognized human rights and freedom. Human rights defenders include lawyers, judges, journalists, whistle blowers, bloggers, students,
religious leaders, trade unionists and any other person working to combat human rights abuses in a peaceful manner.

Q: What is the current situation of human rights defenders in Tanzania?
A: Our organization has recorded a number of security incidents towards human rights defenders. Despite being change agents, these
activists are continuously harassed, detained, interrogated, imprisoned, tortured and even at times  paying the ultimate price when they
are killed for what they do. A good example is the last year’s killing of Iringa based Channel Ten journalist Daudi Mwangosi, the barbaric
and brutal torture of Dr. Stephen Ulimboka, the death of Issa Gumba, the suspicious death of women human right defender in Mara
Eustace Nyarugenda who was the director of Action Based Foundation, continuing constant threats towards other journalists like
Cosmas Makongo, Josephat Isango, Charless Misango, the indefinite ban of Mwanahalisi and the arbitrary arrest of human rights
defenders. These are just few incidents that paints a bad picture on the map of Tanzania when it comes to observing human rights….

Q: What motivated you to establish human rights defenders Coalition?
A: My passion for human rights dates all the way back from the University of Dar Es Salaam where I served as a President of the
Human Rights Association. The association was vibrant and vocal and its duties were to organize conferences, seminars and workshops
on issues of genocide; Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as the campaign against the death penalty; … Many people do
confuse the work of defending human rights defenders and other normal human rights activities. In fact majority of them (human rights
defenders) do not know that they are ‘human rights defenders’ who need some level of sensitivity and special protection in performing
their day-to-day activities as defenders and promoters of others rights…
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STATEMENT OF THE NETWORK OF HUMAN rights defenders following a brutal attack against the chairman of the Forum
EDITORS BW. Absalom Banda
March 7, 2013

Network of Human Rights Defenders, which is an assembly of more than 70 civil society organizations promoting human rights (THRD-
Coalition), in collaboration with the Union of Writers Club Herbert Tanzania (TPC) and the Media Institute of the South in Africa (MISA-
Tan) we strongly condemned the brutal attack was done to Editors Forum chairman Absalom Hut last night of Wednesday on March 6,
On the night of 6/3/2013 Lord Hut was attacked when he was returning to his house at Mbezi up. The men were enslaved and
mistreated animal then remove the teeth, nails, finger and severely destroyed the left eye. This is cruelty, not! Against the dignity of their
pursuit binadamu.Baada they threw him 30 meters away when he was out of his car park.

Case ujatujapatia we made still more detailed information and event security. But the initial reports of a large percentage of his work
relates to the defense of human rights through its academic writing information. This is because also already open court case involving
her writing.

We say this because the threats against journalists and other watetetezi want habitual human rights now here in which there was no in
the past years. Approximately within 10 months now over human rights defenders, including 10 journalists have information
shajeruhiwa, had threatened or killed.

These events symbolize the goal of wanting to turn off the voices of advocates of the weak excuses for different cases with this type
sometimes yakipewa different chapters including ordinary crime, stories of romantic allegiances do wrong. It is obvious who did it have
negative goals polluting good name and image of our country in the international community for private purposes.

At the same circumstances present case, our network still closely monitoring the ban on newspaper and environmental Mwanahalisi
arrested and interrogated by the authors of Tanzania Daima newspaper schemes by the police recently in the so-called that is writing the
story of stimuli.
Hatupendi interfere or hamper the performance of the host, but also do not want the press and other advocates do their work in an
environment of fear. We believe that there are more appropriate ways to deal with issues related to media professionals. For example
there is the Media Council of Tanzania (MCT) which linajukumu to resolve disputes relating to this profession and if missed, then a
character or characters still have a chance to go to court.

What may be surprising is that police are going to arrest Ethiopia has reached the place of writers and editors in the room Tanzania
Daima their information and kuwakagua up in their homes and taking several documents as happened pugnacious Mr. Josephat Isango.

State of surprise and terrible interview done also by editors Charles Edson Kamukara Sango and all of the paper, where their fate is still
not established until now. This situation can cause fear to other disciplines, so making a big impact in the media industry in the country.
However, the authors are currently living in fear. Are Contact Us Why this step to make others live in fear as an issue on parks iliiyojaa I
mba.Je protection security is for whom? Why others should be killed, them for a prey, tormented and abused with security bar is very
common and kutupiana ball?
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Jakaya Kikiwete
President since 21 December 2005
None reported.
Dr. Ali Mohammed Shein
President of Zanzibar since 3 November 2010
Mohammed Gharib Bilal
Vice President since 6 November 2010
Jakaya Kikiwete
President since 21 December 2005