Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee Equatoriale
Joined United Nations: 12 November 1968
Human Rights as assured by their constitution
Updated 27 March 2013
Item 13: Every citizen shall enjoy the following rights and freedoms:
a) - The respect of his person, life, integrity and physical and moral dignity. Capital punishment shall only be applied for crimes
condemned by the law;
b) - Freedom of expression;
c) - Equality before the law. Women, irrespective of their civil status, shall have the same rights and opportunities as her male counterpart
at the political, economic, social and cultural levels, and at all levels of life; public, private or family;
d) - Freedom of movement and residence;
e) - Honour and good reputation;
f) - Freedom of religion and worship;
g) - The inviolability of the home and the privacy of all correspondence.
h) - The submission of petitions to the state.
i) - The right to speak;
j) - The right to a fair hearing before the courts;
k) - Freedom of association, of assembly and the right to strike;
m) - The deprival of liberty except in the cases and according to the manner determined by law;
n) - The right to hear the charges levied on him;
o) - The right to presume innocence until found guilty during hearing;
p) - No person shall arrogate to himself the right to do justice;
q) - Shall not be judged or condemned twice for the same offence;
r) - Shall not be condemned without proof, nor deprived of the right to defense;
s) - Shall not be punished for an act or omission.
Item 14: The fundamental rights recognized in this chapter shall not exclude those guaranteed by the fundamental law, nor the others,
which enunciate human dignity, the principle of sovereignty of the people or the social and democratic state of law and the republican
form of government.
Item 15: All acts of partiality or discrimination committed on the basis of tribe, gender, religion, and corruption and other or same shall be
punishable by law.
Item 16: All Equato-Guineans shall have the obligation to honor the father land and defend its sovereignty, its territorial integrity and
national unity, factors which contribute to the peace, national security and traditional Equato-Guinean values and protect national interests.
Military services shall be obligatory for all and shall be regulated by law.
Item 17: All Equato-Guineans shall have the obligation to live peaceful, respect the rights and obligations and contribute to the building of
a just and fraternal society.
Item 18: All Equato-Guineans shall respect the state, its national anthem, its Head of State, its government and the institutions legally
Item 19: Every citizen shall pay taxes according to his revenues.
The expenses and revenues of the state and the investment programs shall be registered in each financial year within the annual budget
elaborated in accordance with the legislation in force.
Item 20: Every citizen shall have the obligation to respect and defend the fundamental law.
Item 21: The state shall ensure the protection of the family as the foundation of the society and shall secure the moral, cultural and
economic conditions favorable to the achievement of objectives.
It shall equally protect every matrimonial class.
The traditional family heritage shall be unalienable as determined by the law.
Item 22: The state shall ensure the protection of every person from birth, and foster his normal development and ensure his security for
his moral, psychological and physical integration as well as his family life.
It shall encourage and promote primary health care as the corners tone of the development of this sector.
Item 23: (Constitutional law No. 1/1995, de fecha 17 de Enero).
Education shall be primordial to the state. Every person shall have the right to primary education people shall have the right to primary
education which is obligatory and free;
Free education shall be instituted by law;
The state shall guarantee to every person, private body or religious institution the right to found schools provided he or it subjects oriented
toward the official pedagogical plan;
Official education shall freely allow the institution of religious education, which is protected by the constitution.
Education that shall be officially recognized may not orientate a programme or propagate ideological or partisan tendencies.
Item 24: The state shall protect responsible paternity and ensure appropriate education to promote the family.
Item 25: Work shall be a right and social obligation. The state shall recognize its role in improving on the well-being and development of
its national resources conditions to eradicate poverty, misery and ensure the equal occupation of its national territory and shield its citizens
The law shall define the conditions under which this right shall be exercised.
The earliest pre-historic inhabitants of the Equatorial Guinea region were most likely
Pygmies followed by Bantu people in the 17th Century and the Fang. Bubi descendants of
the Fang populated Bioko Island. The Portuguese first encountered the region in 1471, first
Bioko and then later Annobon and Fernando Poo which were peopled with Nigeria Igbo by
Portuguese slave traders. The islands were ceded to Spain in 1778. The British established
a presence on Bioko in 1827 to combat the slave trade, established a protectorate of the
mainland in 1885 and established a colony in 1900. The present constitution was approved
by national referendum 17 November 1991. It was amended January 1995. In 1926 Spain
united the colony as Spanish Guinea. Under the Basic Law of December 1963, limited
autonomy was authorized followed by independence which was achieved on 12 October
1968. Human rights are enumerated beginning with Item 13 (Every citizen shall enjoy the
following rights and freedoms), conform with the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human
Rights of which Equatorial Guinea is a signatory and are detailed below. For a full English
translation of Equatorial Guinea's Constitution, click here.